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Infection Control

Where are Nosocomial infections acquired? Hospital Acquired Infection
Name the 6 links of infection that must be present for transmission 1. Causative Agent 2. Susceptible Host 3. Portal of Entry 4. Mode of Transmission 5. Portal of Exit 6. Reservoir (this is a chain that can go in either direction)
Which mortality rate is greater: Automobile Accidents or Nosocomial Infections? There are twice as many deaths from nosocomial infections than from MVA's. Nosocomial infections are among the top 10 causes of death in the US
Are all microorganisms potentially infections? No, there are ten times as many beneficial microorganisms on and in our body than the number of cells in our body
5 Causative Agents 1. Bacteria 2. Viruses 3. Fungi 4. Parasites 5. Prions
Are all causative agents completely erraticated with current sterilization methods? No, prions are not always
What is a Reservoir? Any person, animal, insect, plant, soil, or substance in which an infectious agent lives and multiplies
8 Portal of Exits 1. Blood 2. Mucus 3. Breast Milk 4. Urine 5. Feces 6. Semen 7. Vomitus 8. Other secretions
5 Modes of Transmission 1. Direct 2. Indirect 3. Droplet 4. Airborne 5. Vector
What mode of transmission are these examples of: scratching, biting, intercourse kissing, eye splash Direct
What mode of transmission are these examples of: food, water, soil, biologic agents (blood, stool, urine, sweat, hair, fomites) Indirect
What is the difference between Droplet and Airborne modes of transmission? Droplets are small particles that travel a SIX FOOT DISTANCE
Which mode of transmission are these diseases examples of: MRSA, Hep B, Hep C, HIV, Chlamyida, C-diff Direct
Which mode of transmission are these diseases examples of: MRSA, Hep A, Clostridium botulinus, C-diff Indirect
Which mode of transmission are these diseases examples of: Avian Influenaz A, Smallpox, Diphtheria, Meningococal disease Droplet
Which mode of transmission are these diseases examples of: Measles, TB, Varicella Airborne
Which mode of transmission are these diseases examples of: Lyme disease, West Nile virus Vector
6 Portal of Entries 1. Respiratory 2. GI 3. Urinary 4. GYN 5. Blood 6. Tissue
Who is most at risk for infection? -Very young -Very old
4 S/S of Local Infection 1. Erythema (redness) 2. Swelling (edema) 3. Drainage (note: color, amount, consistency, odor) 4. Tenderness
7 S/S of Systemic Infection 1. Fever 2. Chills 3. Malaise 4. Anorexia 5. Nausea & Vomiting (n/v) 6. Decreased Energy 7. Increased Pulse and Respirations
5 preventative measures to control infection transmission 1. Hand washing 2. Keep soiled items from touching uniform 3. Do not wear uniform in the community 4. Do not go to work ill 5. Label personal items, basins, urinals
6 times you need to wash your hands 1. Before touching newborns, immunocompromised pt.s 2. Before performing invasive procedures 3. Before entering intensive areas 4. Before and after work, food prep, restroom use, sneezing/coughing on hands 5. Before and after glove use 6. After pt co
4 Hand washing antiseptics 1. Alcohol based gels and foam 2. Chlorhexidine 47 3. Triclosan 4. Iodine Compounds
Which patients are at the greatest risk for C-diff? Patients >85 yo
What percentage of hospital stays with C-diff ended in death? More than 9%
7 ways to control Portal of Entry 1. Maintain skin integrity 2. Clean, dry linen 3. Safe needle disposal 4. Manage IV Catheters 5. Manage Urinary Catheters 6. Wound Care 7. Aseptic Technique
What is a major source of nosocomial infection? Urinary catheters (80% of nosocomial infections come from urinary catheters)
What are these examples of: Clean technique, Hand washing, Glove use, Clean environment, Standard precautions Medical Asepsis
What is Sterile technique? Surgical Asepsis - procedures used to ELIMINATE all microorganisms (does not always eliminate prions)
What are the principals of surgical asepsis? -Sterile object is contaminated if touched by non-sterile object -Sterile objects placed on sterile field -Sterile objects become contaminated by prolonged exposure to air -Edges of a sterile field are contaminated
Describe the clean technique? DECREASE the potential for the spread of disease-causing microorganisms (Does not eliminate!)
4 ways to control Portal of exit 1. Careful handling of urine, feces, blood 2. Lab specimens 3. Cover mouth when sneezing/coughing 4. Mask prn
3 ways to control the causative agent 1. Cleaning 2. Disinfection 3. Sterilization
7 areas of assessment/consideration to protect susceptible host 1. Bathing, pericare, oral hygiene 2. Adequate fluid intake 3. Appropriate nutrition 4. Prevent skin breakdown 5. Monitor visitors 6. Standard precautions 7. Isolation Precautions, prn
7 CDC Standard Precautions 1. Hand washing 2. Gloving 3. Gowning 4. Masking 5. Appropriate device handling 6. Appropriate handling of laundry 7. Patient placement
3 types of Isolation Precautions 1. Contact precautions 2. Airborne precautions 3. Droplet precautions
Protective Equipment (8 listed) 1. Gloves 2. Gown 3. Mask 4. Eyewear 5. Sharps container 6. Specimen collection 7. Bagging contaminated articles 8. Transporting patients
5 ways to Prevent Injuries 1. Eliminate use of needle devices 2. Promote safety awareness 3. Plan for safe handling and disposal of needles and sharps 4. Prohibit recapping of needles 5. Analyze injuries to identify trends
6 Common Resistant (to antibiotics) Microorganisms 1. Streptococcus pneumonia 2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3. Salmonella - Shigella 4. MRSA 5. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) 6. Gonrrhea
How do we (as nurses) reduce antibiotic resistance? -Assess for proper medication use -Educate on the issue of antibiotic resistance: individuals, families, and communities
What does the acronym JCAHO stand for? Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals Organization
What is JCAHO's role in Infection Control? -Establish guidelines for the prevention of infection -Establish guidelines for the control of infection -Reporting of infections -Hospital inspections
Created by: MEPN 2013