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Introduction to Nursing Theory and Nursing Process

What is Nursing Theory? An organized set of related ideas & concepts that: assist in finding meaning in our individual & collective nursing experience, organizing thinking around an idea, develop new ideas & insights in our work, lay foundation for new forms of nursing practice
5 Components of a Theory 1. Phenomena 2. Assumptions 3. Concepts 4. Definitions 5. Statements/propositions
What is a paradigm? A worldview underlying the theories and methodology of a particular scientific subject.
What is a conceptual framework? A set of concepts related to form a whole
What is a model? A symbolic representation of a framework or concepts
What do Nursing Theories describe, explain and predict? Human behavior
Where are Nursing Theories used? In practice, education, and research
6 Important Nurse Theorists 1. Florence Nightingale 2. Virginia Henderson 3. Hildegard Peplau 4. Patricia Benner 5. Madeleine Leninger 6 Jean Watson
Which important Nurse Theorist wrote the first textbook on psych-nursing? Hildegard Peplau
Which important Nurse Theorist wrote the book From Novist to Expert? Patricia Benner
Definition of a care plan? A care plan is a tool that represents meaningful structure...with a focus question (problem)...A hierarchal manner...And lines that depict a connection.
What does the care plan begin with? A central concept or theme
A care plan begins with a central concept or theme, and then what is diagramed, as branching out from the central theme? Related ideas that apply to the concept
3 Uses for care plans 1. Brainstorming individually or with a group 2. Helping problem solve 3. Helping generate interventions or solutions to problems
What is the first thing a nurse should do to create a Care Plan? The nurse must first perform a nursing assessment to gather information about the patient. This may include both subjective and objective assessment data.
What are the 5 steps of the Nursing Process? 1. A - Assessment 2. D - (Nursing) Diagnosis 3. P - Plan 4. I - Implementation 5. E - Evaluation
What is the 5-step Nursing Process based on? The scientific process
Which step of the Nursing Process does this statement refer to: Identify yourself, gather necessary information; Perform a physical assessment, obtain an accurate hx, review medical records and diagnostic tests, collaborate with entire HCT and family Step 1. Assessment
Which step of the Nursing Process is a 3-part system? Step 2. (Nursing) Diagnosis
What are the 3 steps of the Nursing Diagnosis? 1. P - Problem (label from NANDA-I list) 2. E - Etiology/"related to" factor (what is contributing to the nursing dx?) 3. S - Symptom/"as evidenced by" (s/s, or as NANDA-I describes them, defining characteristics, taken from the assessment)
How do you make a Nursing Diagnosis? Look for common patterns in the assessment, cluster or group common patterns/verify defining characteristics, and identify possible nursing dx using critical thinking skills to determine accurate dx
What is Etiology? Cause - relationship to the nursing dx
Can you use the medical diagnosis in your "related to" or etiology phrase? No, but may be secondary
What phrase may be used to connect the etiology with the defining characteristics? as evidenced by (AEB)
What are the defining characteristics of the Nursing Dx? Signs and symptoms (s/s) identified in the assessment (part of the S-step of the Nursing Diagnosis)
State a Nursing Dx for the following: Mr Jackson, 62yo, has COPD. Admitted with pneumonia. Has wracking cough, large amounts of sputum, dyspnea, and loud crackles in both lungs. VS: T 101.4, PR 118, RR 30, BP 156/92, SPO2 84-88, Smokes 2 PPD x 45 yrs INEFFECTIVE AIRWAY CLEARANCE r/t pooling of pulmonary secretions, secondary to COPD, AEB dyspnea, production of large amounts of sputum and cough
Which step of the Nursing Process prioritizes the nursing dx, has a general goal to improve health problem, identifies outcomes, and identifies interventions based on evidence? Step 3. Planning
When determining priorities in step 3 of the Nursing Process, what should your priorities be based on? Maslow's hierarchy
What are the levels of Maslow's hierachy - beginning from the most basic needs? Physiological (breathing, food, water, sleep, homeostasis, excretion), Safety (security of body, employment, resources, family, health), Love/Belonging (friendship, family, sexual intimacy), Esteem (self-esteem, confidence, respect), Self-actualizaiton
What is the general goal of the Planning step of the Nursing Process? To improve health problem
When identifying Nursing Outcomes Classifications (NOC) in the Planning step of the Nursing Process you want to write outcomes that resolve what? Symptoms
When identifying Nursing Outcomes Classifications (NOC) in the Planning step of the Nursing Process you may use what scale? 5-point Likert-type rating scale
When identifying Nursing Outcomes Classifications (NOC) in the Planning step of the Nursing Process what does this assist in? Recording change after intervention
When identifying Nursing Outcomes Classifications (NOC) in the Planning step of the Nursing Process what does this increase? NOCs increase the client/patient's motivation to achieve outcomes
When identifying Nursing Outcomes Classifications (NOC) in the Planning step of the Nursing Process what format do you use? SMART
What does the acronym SMART represent? S - specific M - measurable A - appropriate/attainable R - reasonable T - time-frame
Interventions should be -Clear: specific and timely -Evidence-based: rationale to support nursing interventions -Independent or or collaborative
What is NIC Nursing Intervention Classification
"this" is comprehensive, standardized and covers all nursing specialities The Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC)
What are the 4 parts of implementation? -Initiation of Care Plan -Performing Interventions -Assessing Effectiveness -Documentation
Which step of the Nursing Process is a continuous process with constant evaluation of outcomes and consistent evaluation of evidence? Step 5 - Evaluation
Hopelessness leads to Helplessness; which leads to Powerlessness, which leads to what? "Spiritual death"
Created by: MEPN 2013