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Define spinal segment Spinal segment is where the nerve attaches to the cord
What dural septum separates the two cerebral hemispheres Falx cerbri
The medial and lateral appatures (foramina magendie and lushka)connect the A._____ with the B.____ 4th ventricle with the subarachnoid space
the rate of CSF formation is about_____ml/day 500
Yellow colored CSF is suggestive of subarachnoid hemorrahage
CSF pressure is determined by the rate of absorption by the arachnoid villi
the ammount of _____ is much higher in the serum than in the CSF protein
In Arnold-Chiari malformation the vertebral column grows faster than the spinal cord and portions of the _______ are pulled through the foramen magnum cerebellum and part of the medulla
Areas 3,1,2 are located in the _____ lobe post central gyrus in the parital lobe
Name the groups of fibers that connect the cerebellum to the pons middle cerebellar peduncle
the primary general sensory area for the foot is supplied by the _____ artery anterior cerebral artery
the anterior choroidal AA is notable because it is often occluded and several structures it supplies are especially sensitive to ischemia. What are thoes two structures Hypocampus and Globus pallidus
Nuclei gracilus and cuteanus are supplied by the _____ AA Posterior spinal AA
The anterior radicular AA branch off of the ____ AA segmental AA
What sensory deficits would be expected with occlusion of the posterior spinal AA supplying the left T12 spinal cord....explain answer NOne. The anastomosis between the posterior spinal AA would keep both sides suppiled.
Condider a tear of the middle minengial AA following a blow to the pterion. What type of hemorrhage would result Epidural hemorrhage
Why does papilledema occur with increased crainal pressure blood pools in the back of eye due to decreased venous return.
The subdural hemorrhage most commonly results from a blow to the front or back of the head which results in tearing of a _____where it enters the ______ superior cerebral veins, superior saggital sinus
Name the region of the diencephalon described...I. contains the substania nigra and red nucleus? II. Includes the Habenula I. Subthalamus II. Epithalamus
The anterior and dorsalmedial nuclei of the thalamus project to wide areas of the cortex
Area 17 recieves specific afferents from the lateral geniculate
Define a spinal segment Region of cord where the spinal nerve attaches
In what area of the spinal cord is fasciculus cuneatus located? (use correct terminology) It is situated laterally in the posterior funiculus from T6 and up, which is located in the posterior white column.
In what area of the brain are the first signs of Alzheimer's disease seen? Hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and associated areas of the cerebral cortex
Mostly cerebral cortex is classified as “homotypical.” What does this mean? The cortex has 6 layers and in the homotypical regions these layers are easily identified. These layers are: -molecular -external granular -external pyramidal -internal granular -ganglionic -multiform
What two components are required for normal consciousness? Active functioning of the reticular formation and cerebral cortex are necessary. Reticular formation is responsible for wakefulness. Cerebral cortex is responsible for awareness or the state in which a person can respond to stimuli.
Describe a person in a persistent vegetative state. The person has intact reticular formation but a nonfunctioning cerebral cortex. Person is awake, but has no awareness and can’t respond to stimuli. Seen after severe head injury or anoxic cerebral insult.
Meningitis causes a severe headache located _____. Over the entire head and back of the neck.
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced at a rate of _____ mL/min. 0.5 mL/min Total volume: 130mL Turnover time: 5 hours
What is the structure of the blood-brain barrier? B. What area of the brain lacks the blood-brain barrier? 1) endothelial cells in the wall of the capillary 2) Continuous basement membrane surrounding the capillary outside the endothelial cell 3) The foot processes of the astrocyte that adhere to the outer surface of the capillary wall (has tight junctions b
Which area of the cerebral cortex deals with personality, judgment, and initiative? (Give either Brodmann’s numbers or the name) B. Which specific projection group of the thalamus sends fibers to this cortex? Prefrontal cortex—Brodmann’s areas 9, 10, 11, 12 B. Limbic projection group
Autopsy findings in a 2 year old boy included subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages, massive cerebral swelling, and widespread loss of neurons. What is the likely cause of this trauma? Subdural hemorrhage results from tearing of the superior cerebral veins at the point of entrance onto the superior sagittal sinus. Likely cause: blow on front or back of the head, causing excessive anteroposterior displacement of the brain within the sku
Name the region of the diencephalon described: A. Contains the pineal gland and habenula B. Contains the red nucleus and substantia nigra C. Important in the control of endocrine and autonomic systems Epithalamus B. Subthalamus C. Hypothalamus
The lateral portion of areas 3, 1, 2, 4 receives afferents from _____. Ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus
Give the source of afferents to the left general sensory association cortex via: A. Short association fibers B. Projection fibers C. Commissural fibers Left primary sensory cortex, areas 3, 1, 2 B. Left association projection group C. Right general sensory association cortex, areas 5 & 7
Area 17 receives afferents from _____. Lateral geniculate (optic nerve, visual)
Name the fibers which terminate on the diffuse reticular projection group of the thalamus: A. With general sensation from the body B. With general sensation from the head C. As part of the ascending reticular activation system Spinothalamic tract Ventral trigeminothalamic tract Reticular nuclei
Neurons of the posterior complex and intralaminar nuclei project to _____. Part of diffuse reticular projection group → wide areas of the cortex
Give the location of the nerve cell bodies whose fibers carry proprioreceptive information from the legs to the cerebellum. Dorsal Root Ganglion
Give the location of the nerve cell bodies whose fibers contribute to the ventral trigeminothalamic tract. Reticular nucleus, chief nucleus, nucleus of the spinotrigeminal tract
The left posterior spinal artery supplying the C5 spinal cord is occluded. A. What deficits are expected? B. Explain your answer. No deficits expected Because of the anastomosis between the two posterior spinal arteries
A young woman complains of drooping mouth on the left side and inability to close her left eye tightly. A. What is the most likely site of a lesion? B. Is this an emergency? CN7 bony canal, where CN7 enters on the right B. Not an emergency
A person has the following deficits in dermatomes T3-8 bilaterally: decreased pain, temperature, crude touch, pressure. Draw a x-section of the spinal cord and mark the location of a single lesion that would account for the symptoms. (Conscious propriorec Anterior commissure T3-8
Consider the destruction of the fibers in the genu of the left internal capsule. Which of the following areas would lack normal general sensation: A. R. cheek B. L. cheek C. R. leg D. L. leg R. Cheek would lack sensation because the genu contains GSA from the head traveling to the cortex
A person shows sudden and dramatic changes in personality, behavior, judgment, and foresight. Which cortical areas have been damaged? Areas 9, 10, 11, 12 prefrontal personality cortex
In the ventricular system, the lateral aperture (Foramen of Lushka) connects the ____ and the ____. 4th ventricle with the subarachnoid space
What is the function of the CSF? -Bathes the external and internal surfaces of the brain and spinal cord -Cushion between the CNS and surrounding bone -Protection -Nourishes the neural tube
What regulates the CSF? Production of the CSF through the choroid plexuses is constant. The rate of the absorption of CSF through the arachnoid villi controls the CSF pressure.
How often is the volume of CSF turned over? Every 5 hours
What condition is suggested by papilledema? (Not tumor) Congestion of the retinal vein, bulging forward of the optic disc.
What is the neural innervation of the dura lining the posterior cranial fossa? Stretching the dura in this area would result in _____? Trigeminal, vagus, first three cervical spinal nerves, and branches of the sympathetic trunk. Sensation of headache.
What area of the internal capsule passes between the thalamus and the lentiform nucleus? Posterior limb of the internal capsule
Name the one best area of the diencephalon described below: A. Nuclei project to cerebral cortex B. All nuclei have a motor function C. Involved in control and integration of the ANS and endocrine system Thalamus B. Subthalamus C. Hypothalamus
Name the functional group of the thalamic nuclei which include the following: A. Pulvinar B. Intralaminar, posterior and midline complex C. Lateral geniculate D. Projects to cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus, includes anterior and dorsomedial nucleus Cortical association projection group B. Diffuse reticular projection group C. Specific projection group D. Limbic group
Name the functional group of the thalamic nuclei which include the following: E. Projects to areas 5 & 7 F. Receives fibers from ascending reticular activating nuclei of the brainstem and projects to wide area of cortex G. Important for the analysis and Cortical association projection group F. Diffuse reticular projection group G. Cortical association projection group H. Limbic projection group I. Specific projection group
In general, the ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus projects to the ____. Ventral lateral nucleus projects to areas 4 and 6 -Ventral anterior nucleus projects to area 6
The 3rd ventricle is part of the _____. Diencephalon between the two halves of the thalamus
A person has an occlusion of the anterior spinal artery at the T5 level. In what area of the body would you expect a deficit? R. and L. legs motor, pain, temp., crude touch, pressure loss
Pain and temp fibers in the ventral trigeminothalamic tract terminate on: A. _____ in the thalamus B. _____ in the thalamus C. _____ in the brainstem VPMN of thalamus B. Diffuse reticular projection group C. Reticular nuclei
Proprioreceptive fibers in the medial lemniscus have their NCBs in which nuclei? Nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus
Of which of the following sensory deficits would likely result from an anterior erosion of the central canal at C5-T1 level? A. Pain, R. arm B. Temperature, L. arm C. Conscious proprioreception, R. leg D. Crude touch, R. arm E. Discriminating touch Gone B. Gone C. Still there D. Gone E. Still there
Why does pain result in visceral and emotional changes but discriminating touch does not? Pain goes to wide areas of the brain, but discriminating touch goes to certain areas
A person has an upper right cervical disorder accompanied by a decrease in pain sensation over the right cheek. How could the decrease in pain be related to the cervical problem? Would you expect a deficit in any other modality? Nerve entrapment, yes
The primary fibers carrying pain terminate in ____ of the spinal cord and the ____ of the brainstem. Substantia gelatinosa -reticular nuclei
Which tracts from the body to the cerebellum carry unconscious proprioreceptive data integrated with the level of excitation of the lower motor neuron? Spinocerebellar pathways -ICP/SCP—rostral C/T + ICP—Ventral L/S
A person complains of an area of decreased sensation on his upper arm and muscle weakness in his shoulder. Is this is a central problem or a peripheral problem? Peripheral
What findings would suggest that this is a problem in a spinal nerve and not in the lateral white of the spinal cord? Because it is only sensation that has been lost
Nuclei gracilis and cuneatus are located in the ____ (ant/post/lat/med) portion of the ____ (open/closed) medulla Posterior, closed
The posterior spinal arteries branch off the ____ in the skull Vertebral arteries
What is the most likely clinical outcome of an occlusion of the left posterior spinal artery supplying the C5 spinal cord? Explain. Nothing, because of the anastomosis of the R. and L. sides.
The primary general sensory cortex is area ____. Specifically the face is located in the ____ aspect. -Areas 3,1,2,4 -Lateral
What gyrus is located immediately superior to the corpus callosum? Cingulate gyrus
Name the thalamic nucleus which projects to: A. Area 17 B. Areas 41 and 42 Lateral geniculate B. Medial geniculate
Fibers projecting from the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus to the cortex would be located in the ____ of the internal capsule. Genu
Fibers connecting the right and left occipital lobes would most likely be located in the _____. Corpus callosum
Fibers connecting the visual primary and association areas would be classified as _____. Short association fibers
The motor and sensory language areas communicate through the _____ (give the fiber group and side). Left superior longitudinal fasciculus or Long association fibers -same side
The fibers contributing to the consensual light reflex decussate in the ____. Posterior commissure
What are the two major sources of input to the reticular nuclei of the reticular activating system? Sensation and cerebral cortex -Output: diffuse reticular projection group, limbic projection group
Inactivation of the midbrain reticular nuclei results in ____. Sleeping, decreased formation of reticular, total loss of reticular
Which nuclei of the brainstem project into the cerebellum? (unconscious) Reticular nuclei, lateral cuneatus, nucleus of dorsalis, mesencephalic
Fibers of the spinothalamic tract terminate on ____. -VPLN of thalamus -Diffuse reticular projection group -Reticular nuclei of brainstem
An occlusion of the right anterior radicular artery supplying T8-L2 spinal cord could result in decreased: A. pain in L. leg B. discriminating touch in R. leg C. proprioreception R. arm D. crude touch R. leg No problem due to vasocorona anastomosis.
A person has a left hemidissection at the C2 level, give the sites of the following deficits: A. Pain and temp B. Discriminating touch C. Conscious proprioreception Gone on right B. Gone on left C. Gone on left
If a person has anterior erosion of the central canal between the levels of L1-L5, give the sites of the following deficits: A. Pain and temp B. Discriminating touch C. Conscious proprioreception Gone in L1-5 B. Still there C. Still there
A major characteristic of neocortex is that it has _____ layers of neurons (at least sometime during development). 6 layers of cortex
What sulcus is the landmark for the primary visual cortex? Calcerine sulcus
The uncus is olfactory in function and is formed by the anterior tip of the ____ gyrus. Cingulate gyrus
Areas 9,10,11,12 are involved in higher mental functions such as judgment and foresight. These areas are in the _____ lobe/cortex. Prefrontal lobe/personality cortex
The general sensory association cortex corresponds to areas _____. Give two sources of afferents to this cortex. 5 and 7. Commissural fibers from 5 and 7 on opposite side, short association fibers, cortical association projection group.
A blow to the temporal region may result in a tear in the ____ artery. Blood accumulating in the ____ space will cause an increase in intracranial pressure. If you recognize that a person had the signs of such a condition, what would you do? Middle meningeal, epidural, Call 911
What group of fibers connects the pons and cerebellum? Middle cerebellar peduncle
Most nuclei of the pons are located in the ____ (region). Tegmentum of the pons
The vasocorona is formed between anastomoses between ____ arteries. What area of the cord does it supply? Anterior and posterior radicular arteries, vertebra, disc margin, nerve root, meninges.
The ventral horn of the spinal cord are supplied by the _____. Anterior spinal arteries
Name the thalamic nucleus described. Projects to lateral 3,1,2 of auditory system. Medial geniculate
The fibers projecting from the ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus are categorized as ____ fibers and are located in the ____ internal capsule. Projection fibers Posterior limb
Name the nuclei whose axons join the left ventral trigeminothalamic tract. -Nucleus of the spinotrigeminal tract -Chief sensory nucleus of reticular nuclei.
Name the nuclei which projects proprioreceptive information about the head to cerebellum Mesencephalic nuclei and reticular nuclei
What major information is carried in the right medial lemniscus? Include modalities and side of the body. From the opposite side, discriminating touch, vibration, conscious proprioreception
Consider a hemidissection of the right spinal cord at C4 A. pain B. discriminating touch C. conscious proprioreception Pain on left is gone B. Gone on right C. Gone on right
What is the general function of the nuclei in the subthalamus? Motor function
Name the thalamic nuclei which specifically project to the cingulate gyrus. Anterior nucleus of the thalamus
What structure of the diencephalon may become calcified with age? Pineal body
What structure of the telencephalon may become calcified with age? Choroid plexus
What sulcus lies on the medial aspect on the occipital lobe and is associated with the visual cortex? Calcerine sulcus
Name one neuron of the cerebral cortex whose axon is a projection fiber. Corticospinal tract
What nerves supply general sensation to the dura inferior to the tentorium? First three cervical nerves
Which group of white matter contain primary fibers for pain, temp, crude touch, and pressure? Spinothalamic tract, dorsolateral fasciculus
Consider a blow to the pterion that causes a tear in the underlying middle meningeal artery. A. What type of hemorrhage will result? B. An expanding clot will put pressure on what part of the brain? Epidural B. Temporal
Which group of long association fibers provides communication between the sensory language and motor speech areas? Include side. Left superior longitudinal fasciculus
Give the specific location of the red nucleus. Midbrain tegmentum and subthalamus of diencephalon
What ventricle lies in the diencephalon? 3rd Ventricle
The hypoglossal nerve exits the medulla between which two structures? Olive and pyramid
The spinotrigeminal tract and nucleus forms which landmark on the medulla? Tuberculum cinereum
What is the function of areas 3,1,2,4 of the cerebral cortex? Primary sensory cortex
What is the function of areas 5 and 7 of the cerebral cortex? Somesthetic (somatosensory) association area (general sensory association area)
Parkinson’s disease is caused by the destruction of which area? Substantia nigra
In most people which hemisphere is usually dominant for language? Left
Name the region of the midbrain which contains the superior colliculus. Tectum
Name the most ventral landmarks of the medulla. Pyramids
Name the tracts carrying second order fibers for discriminating touch. Medial lemniscus
Where are Rexed’s laminae I-IV located? Dorsal horn
Name three thalamic nuclei which belong to the cortical association projection group. -Pulvinar -Lateral posterior -Lateral dorsal
What type of information is carried by the spinothalamic tract? Pain, temp, crude touch, pressure
What structure contains most of the fibers connecting the two parietal lobes? Body of corpus callosum
Area 44 is called what Broca’s area
The fibers of the internal capsule are classified as what type? Projection fibers
Which part of the diencephalon contains the: A. Habenula B. Red nucleus C. Mammillary nucleus D. Substantia nigra Epithalamus B. Subthalamus C. Hypothalamus D. Subthalamus
Areas of the neocortex where the 6 layers are no longer distinguishable are known as what? Heterotypical cortex
The pulvinar nerve belongs to which functional group? Cortical association projection group
What sensory deficits would be expected with a vascular lesion in the genu of the internal capsule? Loss of facial sensation except a bit of vibration sensation
Reticular nuclei which project to lower motor neurons receive input from which two major sources? -Sensory Info -Cerebral cortex
Created by: mgjengdahl