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Final Exam Vocab

Vocabulary 1 - 3

Mass Extinction when large numbers of entire species become extinct at nearly the same time
Evolution change over time of species of organisms, or Earth
Natural Selection process where members of the species that are best suited to their environment survive and reproduce at a higher rate
Adaptation trait that gives an organism an advantage in its environment and increases its chance or survival
Speciation evolution of a new species from an existing species
Ancestor distant or early form of an organism form which later organisms descend
Vestigial Organ physical structure that was fully developed and functional in an earlier group but is reduced and unused in later species
Homologous Structure physical structure that is similar and used for a similar purpose in different species
Mutation random change to a gene that results in a new trait
Population Dynamics study changes in the number of individuals in a population and the factors that effect those changes
Carrying Capacity maximum size that a population can reach in an ecosystem
Population Density measure of the number of organisms in a given area
Immigration movement of an organism into a range inhabited by the same species
Emigration movement of individuals out of an ecosystem
Limiting Factor factor or condition that prevents the continuing growth of a population in an ecosystem
Opportunist species characterized by a relatively short life span and large quantities of offspring
Competitor species characterized by a relatively long life span with few offspring
Fossil an object that is a trace or remain of living things from the past
Original Remains fossils that are actual bodies or body parts of an organism (ex.Bones)
Ice Core a sample of Earth that is taken in a tube and shows the layers that have built up over thousands of years
Relative Age (Dating) the age of an even or object in relation to other events or objects (younger or older)
Absolute Age (Dating) the actual age in years of an object or event
Index Fossil fossils or organisms that were common, lived in many areas, and existed only during a certain time span
Half-Life the length of time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to change to another form
Uniformitarianism the theory that Earth is an always changing place and that the same forces of change from the past are at work today
Geological Time Scale the scale that divides Earth's history into intervals that are defined by major events or changes on Earth
Lithosphere the layer of Earth made up of crust and the rigid part of the upper mantle
Asthenosphere layer in Earth's upper mantle that is soft because it is close to melting
Tectonic Plate one of the large moving pieces of Earth's lithosphere (oceanic/continental)
Continental Drift hypothesis that Earth's continents move on Earth's surface
Pangaea hypothetical super continent that included all the land masses of Earth, broke apart 2009 million years ago
Theory or Plate Tectonics theory stating that Earth's lithosphere is broken into huge plates that move and change in size over time
Rift Valley deep valley formed as tectonic plates move apart, such as along a mid-ocean ridge
Magnetic Reversal switch in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field so that magnetic North and South switch
Hot Spot area where a column of hot material rises from deep within the mantle and heats the lithosphere, causing volcanic activity
Subduction when oceanic plate sinks under another plate in Earth;s mantle
Habitat environment that contains most of the necessary requirements for an organism to live
Intertidal Zone the narrow ocean margin between the high tide and the low tide mark
Estuaries where fresh water from rivers mixes with slat water from the ocean
Wetland wet, swampy areas that are often flooded with water (ex. Salt Marshes and Mangrove Forests)
Coral Reef built up limestone deposits formed by large colonies of organisms called coral
Kelp Forest large communities of a seaweed called kelp that attaches to the ocean floor and can grow up to 40 m, in cold water
Phytoplankton microscopic floating organisms that lie at or near the sunlit surface and are able to photosynthesis
Hydrothermal Vents hot water that rises up from cracks in the ocean floor (has lots of chemicals an chemosynthetic bacteria)
Overfishing catching fish at a faster rate than they can reproduce
By-Catch potion of animals that are caught in a net then thrown away
Salinity the amount of dissolved salt in a substance
Density mass divided by volume
Continental Shelf the slope of land that lies under the water at the edge of a continent
Sonar use of sound waves to measure distance and to locate objects
Current mass or moving water
Upwelling movement of deep nutrient water up to the surface
El Nino global weather event caused by changes in air and water movement
Longshore Current movement of water parallel to the shore
Rip Current strong movement of water that breaks through sandbars and moves out to sea
Tide rise and fall of the water level of the ocean due to the moon's gravitational pull
Tidal Range difference between high tide and the next low tide
Spring Tide extreme high and low tide (large tidal bulge)
Neap Tide less extreme high and low tide (small tidal bulge)
Irrigation way that humans apply water to crops
Aquaculture science and process of raising and harvesting fish for food
Dam structure that blocks and controls the flow of water in a river or lake
Lock area of waterway closed off by gates, where water level is raised and lowered to let ships pass
Concentration the amount of substance in another substance
Sewage System system used by cities and towns to collect and treat waste water
Septic System small system used by home or business to treat waste water (usually in remote/country areas)
Point-Source Pollution pollution that enters water from a known source
Nonpoint-Source Pollution pollution that enters water from a source that is hard to find or is scattered
Drought long period of time with little to no rainfall
Desalination process used to remove salt from ocean water
Fresh Water water you can drink, not salty
Salt Water water that has salt and minerals
Water Cycle continuous flow of water from the air to the ground and back
Evaporation water turning to water vapor (gas)
Condensation process of water turning from vapor to liquid
Precipitation water falling from clouds
Divide ridge from which water flows on either side
Drainage Basin area at the bottom of a divide where water flows
Turnover continuous rising and sinking of water in a lake
Eutrophication the increase of nutrients in a lake or pond
Iceberg large mass of frozen water in the ocean
Groundwater water held in the ground
Permeable layer of rock/soil that water CAN flow through
Impermeable layer of rock that water CAN'T flow through
Water Table the highest part of the ground that is completely filled with water
Aquifer underground permeable layer of rock that holds water
Spring water that flows from the ground where the surface of land dips below the water table
Artesian Well well where water flows upward because of pressure
Transpiration water given off by plants
Infiltration water that makes its way into the ground
Runoff water draining from mountains into rivers, lakes, and streams
Microorganism small organism that can only be seen with a microscope
Kingdom 6 large groupings of living organisms that have similar characteristics
Algae protists that live mostly in water and do photosynthesis
Plankton microscope organisms that drift in large numbers through water
Protozoa animal-like protists that are decomposers
Virus non-living, disease causing particles that uses living cells to reproduce
Bacteria group of one-celled organisms that sometimes cause disease
Archaea single-celled organisms without nuclei that can survive in extreme enviroments
Decomposer organism that feeds on or breaks down dead plant and animal matter
Parasite organism that uses another organism for its nutrients, it often harms the host organism in the process
Host Cell cell that a virus infects and uses to make copies of itself
Carbohydrate sugar molecule used for energy
Lipid organic compound that makes up fats and oils in living things
Protein org. compound made of amino acids, that does the work in a cell
Nucleic Acid molecules that carry the instructions for the cell (RNA and DNA)
Glucose sugar made form carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Photosynthesis process plant cells use to make glucose
Chlorophyll pigment
Created by: ThompsonML