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Pathophysiology

Ch 2 - Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology

QuestionAnswer
3 Common forms of cell injury 1. Hypoxic injury 2. Free radical 3. Chemical
Define Hypoxia A lack of sufficient oxygen
What is the most common cause of cell injury? Hypoxia
What is the initial insult in hypoxic cell injury? Ischemia
What is ischemia? Reduced blood supply/cessation of blood flow (cuts off oxygen and nutrition supply to cells)
3 types of hypoxic injuries 1. Ischemia 2. Anoxia 3. Reperfusion
What is anoxia Total lack of oxygen
What is reperfusion? Restoration of oxygen
What does cellular response to injury result in? -ATP depletion -Failure of active transport mechanisms -Impact plasma membrane integrity (resulting in increased permeability)
What are free radicals? Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron.
What are some effects of free readical damage? Lipid Peroxidation, alteration of proteins, alteration of DNA
What is oxidation? Loss of an electron
What is reduction? Gain of an electron
Give examples of compounds that cause chemical injury Lead, Carbon monoxide, Ethanol, Mercury, Social or street drugs
What is a blunt force injury? Application of mechanical energy to the body resulting in the tearing, shearing, or crushing of tissues.
What type of injuries do blunt force injuries cause? contusion, hematoma, abrasion, laceration, fractures
What is the difference between a contusion and a hematoma? A contusion is a bruise. There is bleeding into skin or underlying tissues. Ruptures blood vessels without breaking skin. A hematoma is a collection of blood in soft tissues or an enclosed space.
What are the type of sharp force injuries? incised wounds, stab wounds, puncture wounds, chopping wounds
What is an incised wound? A cut that is longer than deep.
What is a stab wound? A cut that is deeper than it is long
What is a puncture wound? A cut with a sharp point but without a sharp edge.
What is a chopping wound? shows both sharp and blunt force characteristics. Usually associated crushing of wound edges and underlying tissue.
What are the three type of gunshot entrance wounds? contact range entrance wound intermediate range entrance wound indeterminate range entrance wound
What is a contact range entrance wound? When the muzzle of the gun was placed directly on the skin
What is an intermediate range entrance wound? Gun powder fragments penetrate superficial layer of skin. Causes tattooing and stippling.
What is tatooing? fragments of burning or unburned pieces of gunpowder exiting the barrel and strking the skin surface with enough force to be driven into the epidermis or superficial dermis.
What is stippling? Fragments of powder strike with enough force to abrade the skin but not actually penetrate the surface.
What is an indeterminate entrance wound? An entrance wound where the only thing striking the body is the bullet.
What is a shored exit wound? The bullet pushes through the skin against another supporting object.
What is the cause of an asphyxial injury? Caused by a failure of cells to recieve or use oxygen.
Name the types of asphyxial injuries Suffocation, strangulation, chemical asphyxiants, drowning
What is hypothermic injury and what is the result Extreme chilling or freezing of cell. Slows cellular metabolic processes and results in ROS production.
What are the three types of hyperthremic injury? heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke.
What are two types of atmospheric pressure injuries? blast injuries decompression sickness or caisson disease
What is ionizing radiation? Any form of radiation capable of removing orbital electrons from atoms.
Name some examples of ionizing radiation X-rays, gamma rays, alpha and beta particles
What are the three types of effects of ionizing radiation? somatic damage-cancer genetic damage-involves offspring fetal damage- cells more sensitive to damage
What is illumination injury cause by and what are some examples? Caused by light modulation. Examples are eyestrain, obscured vision, and cataract formation
What are some examples of mechanical stresses? physical impact, irritation, overexertion, repetitive body movement
What are the two types of noise cellular damage? Acourstic trauma- instantaneous damage caused by a single sharply rising wave of sound Noise induced hearing loss- prolonged exposure to intense sound
What are the types of cellular accumulations (infiltrations) Water, lipids and carbohydrates, glycogen, proteins, pigments, calcium, urate
What is necrosis? The sum of cellular changes after local death and the process of cellular autodigestion
What are the three processes of necrosis? Karyolysis, pyknosis, and karyorrhexis
What is Karyolysis? Nuclear dissolution and chromatin lysis
What is pyknosis? Clumping of the nucleus/shrinking
What is karyorrhexis? Fragmentation of the nucleus
What are the types of necrosis? coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, gangrenous
What organs does the coagulative necrosis effect and what is it caused by? Kidneys, hear, and adrenal glands. Protein denaturation. Commonly caused by hypoxia.
What structures are liquefactive necrosis associated with and what causes it. Affects neurons and glial cells of the brain. hydrolytic enzymes. Commonly cuased by ischemic injury to neuron and glial cells.
What is caseous necrosis? Combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis. Example is tuberculous pulmonary infection
What organs are affected by fat necrosis and what is it caused by? Affects breast, pancreas, and other abdominal organs. Caused by action of lipases.
What are the types of gangrene? Dry gangrene, wet gangrene, and gas gangrene
What is apoptosis? Programed cell death
Compare apoptosis to necrosis Apoptosis affects scattered single cells. It is nuclear and cytoplasmmic shrinkage of a cell Necrosis causes cells to swell and burst spilling contents over neighbors likely causing a damaging inflamatory response.
What are the 2 pathways of apoptosis Mitochondrial/intrinsic pathway Death receptor/extrinsic pathway
What do the 2 pathways of apoptosis have in common? Both use executioner capsases
What are a couple theories of aging Accumulation of injurious events Genetically controlled program
What are some postmortem changes? Algor mortis- lowering of body temp Livor mortis- skin change caused by blood settling in lowest tissue Rigor mortis Postmortem autolysis- 24-48 hrs after death
Created by: MEPN 2013