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Pathophysiology

Ch 1 - Cellular Biolgoy

QuestionAnswer
What is the smallest functional unit? Cells
What is the process called in which cells become specialized? Differentiation
Whether surrounding the cell or enclosing an intracellular organelle, WHAT is important to normal physiologic function, because it controls the composition of the space, or compartment it encloses? Plasma membranes
Aqueous solution that fills the cytoplasmic matrix (the space between the nuclear envelope and the plasma membrane) Cytoplasm
8 Cytoplasmic Organelles 1. Ribosomes 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 3. Golgi Complex 4. Lysosomes 5. Peroxisomes 6. Mitochondria 7. Cytosol (semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm) 8. Cytoskeleton
WHAT not only serves as the outer boundaries of all cells but also allow groups of cells to be held together robustly in CELL-TO-CELL ADHESIONS? Plasma membranes
Once together, cells are held together by three different means? 1. The extracellular matrix 2. Cell adhesion molecules 3. Specialized cell junctions
Cells can be bound together by attachment to one another or via the ? Extracellular matrix, which cells secrete around themselves
The extracellular matrix is secreted by Fibroblasts ("fiber formers"), local cells that are present in the matrix.
WHAT forms cable-like fibers or sheets that provide tensile strength or resistance to longitudinal stress? Collagen. Collegen breakdown, such as occurs in osteoarthritis, destroys the fibrils that give cartilage its tensile strength.
WHAT is a rubber-like protein fiber most abundant in tissue that must be capable of stretching and recoiling, such as the lungs? Elastin
WHAT is a large glycoprotein that promotes cell adhesion and cell anchorage? Fibronectin; reduced amounts have been found in certain types of cancerous cells, this allows cancer cells to travel or metastasize other parts of the body.
Cells in direct physical contact with neighboring cells are often linked together at specialized regions of their plasma membranes called WHAT? Cell junctions
2 Main functions of Cell Junctions 1. To hold cells together 2. To allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell, allowing coordination of the activities of cells that form tissues.
3 Main types of Cell Junctions 1. Desmosomes (adhering junction, or macula adherens) 2. Tight junctions (impermeable junctions or zonula occludens) 3. Gap junctions (adhering [communicating junctions]
Together, the 3 main types of cell junctions, form WHAT? The junctional complex
This type of specialized cell junction holds cells together by forming either continuous bands or belts of epithelial sheets or button-like points of contact; also acts as a system of braces to maintain structural stability. Desmosomes
This type of specialized cell junction serves as a barrier to diffusion, prevents the movement of substances through transport proteins in the plasma membrane and prevents the leakage of small molecules between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells. Tight junctions
This type of specialized cell junction are clusters of communication tunnels, connexons, that allow smaill ions and molecules to pass directly from the inside of one cell to the inside of another. Gap junctions
The junctional complex is a highly permeable part of the plasma membrane. Its permeability is controlled by a process called WHAT? Gating - which depends on concentrations of calcium ions in the cytoplasm.
This type of specialized cell junction coordinates the activities of adjacent cells? Gap junctions
WHAT involves incoming signals or instructions from extracellular chemical messengers that are conveyed to the cell's interior for execution? Signal transduction
What are the 2 second messenger pathways? 1. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cylic AMP, cAMP) 2. Ca++
What is Cellular Metabolism? All the chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular functions
What does metabolism provide the cell with? The energy it needs to synthesize (produce) cellular structures.
What do cells continuously take in from the extracellular environment? Nutrients, fluids, and chemical messengers.
Water and small electrically uncharged molecules move easily through pores in the plasma membrane's lipid bilayer, by a process called WHAT? Passive transport.
Passive transport occurs naturally through a semipermeable barrier, driven by what? Osmosis, hydrostatic pressure and diffusion (all of which depend on the laws of physics, and do not require life). This process is passive in that it does not require any expenditure of energy by the cell.
3 Types of Membrane Transport 1. Gradient 2. Passive Transport 3. Active Transport
Molecules that cannot be driven across the plasma membrane solely by forces of diffusion, hydrostatic pressure or osmosis because they are too large or have bound with receptors on the cell's plasma membrane are moved into the cell by mechanisms of WHAT? Active transport
Unlike passive transport, active transport requires WHAT? Life, biologic activity, and the expenditure of metabolic energy by the cell. Active transport occurs only across living membranes.
Plasma membrane receptors belong to one of 3 classes that are defined by the signaling (transduction) mechanism used. What are the 3 Signal Transduction mechanisms? 1. Extracellular first messengers 2. Channel regulation 3. Second messengers
Human cells are subject to wear and tear, and most do not last for the lifetime of the individual, therefore WHAT is necessary for the maintenance of life? Cellular reproduction
Cells of common structure and function are organized into tissues, of which there are 4 primary types: 1. Muscle 2. Neural 3. Epithelial 4. Connective Tissue
What is the function of the class of proteins called histones, in the eukaryote cell? Histones bind with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and are involved in the supercoiling of DNA
WHAT is synthesized in the nucleolus and secreted into the cytoplasm? Ribosome (RNA complexes)
Description of an amphipathic molecule A polar molecule (hydrophobic and hydrophilic)
What is responsible for the structural integrity of the cell membrane? The lipid bilayer
6 Protein functions 1. Act as transport channels 2. Pores 3. Cell surface markers 4. Enzymes that drive pumps 5. Catalysts 6. Cell adhesion molecules
5 Functions of cascade message signaling 1. Transfer 2. Amplify 3. Distribute 4. Diverge 5. Modulate
What is the function of a second messenger? Second messengers activate signal transduction pathways within the cell that can initiate different intracellular events. (Intracellular enzyme activated by binding of ligand to cell surface receptors that trigger a cascade of intracellular events)
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur? In the mitochondria
What is diffusion? Diffusion is the movement of solute form an area of high to low concentration.
What is osmosis? Osmosis is the movement of water down a concentration gradient
Does a HYPOTONIC or HYPERTONIC solution have a lower concentration than a body solution? Hypotonic
Chemotaxis Movement of cells along a chemical gradient caused by chemical attraction
What term describes the simultaneous movement of 2 molecules in one direction? Symport
Created by: MEPN 2013