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NURS 500 Patho Ch 1

Patho 500 Ch 1 Cellular Biology

nucleus of prokaryotes single, circular xome
charac of eukaryotes membrane bound organelles, well defined nucleus with nuclear env and nucleolus----histones for DNA folding
Cellular fxns Movement Conductivity Metabolic absorption Secretion Excretion Respiration Communication
eukaryotic cytoplasm Cytoplasmic matrix Cytosol Function Cytoplasmic organelles
ribosome fxn RNA protein complexes Free ribosomes Attached ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum fxn Site of protein synthesis Smooth vs. rough endoplasmic reticulum
Gogli complex Flattened, smooth membranes Secretory vesicles Proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum are packaged in the Golgi complex Cisternae
lysosomes Originate from the Golgi Hydrolases, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates Role in autodigestion
peroxisomes Contain oxidative enzymes Break down substances into harmless products
mitochondria Surrounded by a double membrane Participate in oxidative phosphorylation Increased inner membrane surface area provided by cristae
cytoskeleton Bones and muscles” of the cell Maintains the cell’s shape and internal organization Permits movement of substances within the cell and movement of external projections Microtubules Centrioles Microfilaments
plasma membrane phosopholipid bilayer of ---phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol
pmem protein typs integral---peripheral---transmembrane
function of pmem Receptors Transport Enzymes Surface markers Adhesion molecules
fluid mosaic model lipid bilyer provides basic structure and relatively IMPERMEABLE barrier to most water soluble molecules
raft phospholipids richer supply of cholesterol an surround regions and form RIGID floating platforms in surface of membrane
name 4 proteolytic cascades caspase mediated apoptosis---blood coagulation cascade---matrix metalloproteinase cascade---complement cascade
cell-to-cell adhesions bwo extracellular matrix produced by fibroblasts, includes collagen---elastin---fibronectin
cell-to-cell adhesions include cell junctions = desmosones---tight junctions---gap junctions
another form of cell-to-cell adhesions gating
cellular communication by direct link---gap jxn---hormonal signals---neurohormonal signals (paracrine/autocrine)---ntrans
signal transduction - by extracellular first messengers like Na/K exchange convey instructions to cell interior ---transfer, amplify, distribute, modulate
signal transduction also by channel regulation ----and these two 2nd messenger pathways cAMP----Ca++-----take home message of all signalling is that it alters the shapes of proteins that bring about a cellular response
ATP is created from chemical energy contained within organic molecules----TRANSFERS energy from one molecule to another
where does oxidative phosphorylation take place mitocondria
where does glycolosis occur? in the cytoplasm
what do vaults do? transport mRNA from nucleus to ribosomes
take home message signal transduction ligand binds---relays/amplifies (2nd messenger)/divergence----regulation of gene expression ---effects metabolism---changes cytoskeleton
membrane transport - obvious are diffusion and filtration - who does osmosis roll movement of water down a concentration gradient - related to hydrostatic pressure and solute concentrations
osmolality mOsm/kgH20---preferred clinically---normal value 280-294 mOsm/kg
osmolarity mOsm/L of soln
osmotic pressure amount of hydrostatic pressure required to oppose the osmotic movement of water
osmole unit of osmotic pressure = to that produced by an amount of solute that dissociates--> 1 mole of particles (Avogadro's #)
oncotic/colloidal osmotic pressure the osmotic effect of colloids, like plasma proteins. Draws water back into venous end of a capillary----decreased oncotic pressure can't hold onto water, which goes into tissues/edema
what molecules can readily diffuse down the concentration gradient from ECF to ICF 02, N, H20, urea, glycerol, C02
large molecules such as glucose/sucrose are too large to pass even though they are uncharged. These ions can't pass through pores with identical charges (repelled) and need specialized channels to get into cell H+---Na+---HC03- --- Ca++ ---Cl- ---Mg++
potocytosis is that pesky form of transport by vesicle formation bwo of this outer survace structure bwo the caveolae, which uptakes the molecule like a specialized lipid raft
the conformational-change model of mediated transport = facilitated diffusion is the ping-pong model where the solute binds ---protein changes shape to 'pong' the the solute across the membrane
the channel mode of mediated transport/facilitated diffusion channel protein forms a water filled poer across the bilayer through which specific ions can diffuse
mediated transport is the simultaneous movement using these 3 systems uniport---symport---antiport
Active transport in the Na/K pump - requires 02 to run properly 3 Na out---2 K in---1 ATP spend
place RBC in hypotonic soln of pure water, it will swell or burst
place RBC in hypertonic soln of 18% saline, it will shrink or creatinize
meiosis reproduction of gametes
mitosis has 2 phases phase 1 is nuclear division---phase 2 is cytokinesis
the cell cycle has phases of mitosis (as above) and interphase where . . . most of the work preparing for division occurs
stages of interphase include G-zero, G-1, S and G-2 G-1 = gap phase of presynthesis---S= synthesis of DNA----G2= RNA/pro synth----M=mitosis/cytokinesis----G-zero takes a rest
what does a growth factor actually do - EGF & TGF-alpha stimulate cell cycle it binds to a receptor to induce the cell cycle. breast cancer has too much estrogen, which serves as growth factor---or could have faulty receptor that is active w/o a growth factor
growth factors influence cell cycle, 2 more examples are cytokines and platelet derived (PDGF)
cells become tissue bwo these processes founder cells --- chemotxis----contact guidance---cellular reproduction
epithelial tissue, comes in simple vs. stratified in these flavors squamous---cuboidal---columnar---pseudostratified. Some are ciliated and/or with microvilli
types of connective tissue ground substance---fibers---loose and dense CT----elastic and reticular CT---cartilage, bone, vascular, adipose and organs
Created by: lorrelaws