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Immunity

Immunity and Abnormal Responses

QuestionAnswer
IgG most common antibody in the blood; activates complement; crosses PLACENTA: creates passive immunity in newborns; used in primary and secondary responses.
IgM FIRST antibody produced; binds to B lymphocytes in circulation; activates complement; involved in ABO blood type incompatibility--clumping of RBC. Made in fetus 20 weeks gestation.
IgA tears and saliva secretions, mucous membranes; in colostrum for newborn's protection via BREASTMILK
IgE Binds to mast cells (in skin and mucous membranes); releases HISTAMINE when linked with allergen = inflammation; ALLERGIC RESPONSE. Defends against parasites.
IgD activates B cells; low blood concentration
Antibody (Direct Function) immobilize microorganisms by agglutination, precipitation, and neutralization of viral activity
agglutination clumping insoluble particles (blood incompatibilities)
precipitation binding soluble antigens
Antibody (Indirect Function) activates complement system
Complement System IgG & IgM activates; protein ring creates cylinder and holes into the cell, cell LYSIS and destruction.
Titer looking for a specific antibody in your blood (i.e. varicella = chickenpox)
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; used to test for HIV
Natural Active Immunity pathogens enter body, cause illness. Antibodies form naturally. Memory.
Artificial Active Immunity Vaccine. No illness, but antibodies form. Memory.
Natural Passive Immunity Antibodies passed from mother to child (TEMPORARY protection)across placenta. No memory.
Artificial Passive Immunity Antibodies injected into person (antiserum), provide temporary protection. (snake antivenom)
neutrophils WBC for phagocytosis; nonspecific; active in inflammatory response
basophils WBC; bind IgE, HISTAMINE released in anaphylaxis
eosinophils WBC; allergic responses
monocytes WBC; migrate from blood into tissues to become macrophages
macrophages phagocytosis; presents antigens to lymphocytes for the immune response
mast cells release chemical mediators (HISTAMINE) in connective tissue
B lymphocytes antibody-producing plasma cell or a B memory cell
plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes and secrete specific antibodies
T lymphocytes WBC; cell-mediated immunity
cytotoxic/killer-T cells destroy antigens, cancer cells, virus-infected cells
memory T cells remember antigen and stimulate immune response on reexposure
helper T cells activate B and T cells
NK lymphocytes natural killer cells destroy foreign cells, virus-infected cells, and cancer cells
Active Immunity After antigen exposure or immunization, antibodies and T cells are produced.
Passive Immunity Preformed antibodies or T lymphocytes are passed on from another person
complement when activated, these proteins release other chemical mediators ( = inflammation, chemotaxis, phagocytosis). chemical mediator.
histamine release from mast cells and basophils (ALLERGIC REACTIONS); Vasodilation, increased vascular permeability--edema, contraction of bronchiolar smooth muscle, pruritus (itchiness). chemical mediator.
kinins vasodilation, increased permeability, pain. chemical mediator.
prostaglandins lipids--inflammation, vasodilation, increased permeability, pain. chemical mediator.
leukotrienes lipids (from mast cells and basophils)--contraction of bronchiolar smooth muscle, inflammation. chemical mediator.
cytokines messengers, chemical mediators. lymphokines, monokines, interferons, interleukins. made by macrophages and activated T-lymphocytes. Stimulate activation/stimulation of B and T cells. Inflammation, fever, leukocytosis.
Tumor necrosis factor stimulates fever, chemotaxis, mediator of tissue wasting, stimulates T-cells, stimulates necrosis in some tumors. chemical mediator.
chemotactic factors attracts phagocytes to inflammation area. chemical mediator.
Hyperacute Transplant Rejection immediate, rare--due to antibodies present in the antigen/graft tissue
Acute Transplant Rejection cell-mediated immune response against the unmatched HLA/MHC antigens
Chronic Transplant Rejection inflammatory damage due to minor/weak cell-mediated reaction against minor HLA/MHC antigens
Allograft tissue transplant between two of the same species
Xenograft (Heterograft) tissue transplant between two different species
Anaphylaxis sudden/severe reaction to an exposed antigen
Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reaction IgE mediated against ENVIRONMENT. occurs at 2nd exposure. vasodilation = BP drops, go into shock. Increased mucous, bronchiole constriction (wheezing). Use EPI-PEN.
Isograft tissue transfer between to genetically identical bodies (identical twins)
Autograft tissue transplant on the same person
2 Problems of Anaphylaxis 1. Systemic Vasodilation (drop in BP) 2. Edema of lungs, constriction of bronchi (O2 level drops, unconsciousness)
Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Reaction IgG or IgM antibodies react with antigens causing destruction; COMPLEMENT is ACTIVATED = cell lysis and phagocytosis. Antigen is present on the cell membrane. ABO blood incompatibility.
Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Reaction antigen combines with antibody = COMPLEX FORMS. Complex deposits build up, cause inflammation and tissue destruction. AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS.
Type IV Hypersensitivity: Cell-Mediated/Delayed Like tissue rejection. DELAYED INFLAMMATION. (i.e. TB test). Delayed response by sensitized T cell to antigens which release lymphokines causing inflammatory response.
Cell-Mediated Immunity sensitized T-lymphocytes form with the help of MHC on surface of APCs. All matured in Thymus. CD4=helpers, CD8=killers.
Humoral Immunity specific matching antibodies form upon antigen presence; B lymphocytes mature in bone marrow. Antibodies produced from plasma cells.
Autoimmune Disorders body recognizes the self-antigen as foreign; body attacks itself; genetic predisposition, environmental factors.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus butterfly rash; characterized by circulating autoantibodies against DNA, platelets, etc; deposited in tissues = activates complement/inflammation/necrosis = vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels), ischemia (low O2)
What can suppress the immune system? Corticosteroids!
HIV is what? A sexually transmitted autoimmune disease
HIV/AIDS retrovirus (2 stranded RNA virus)= the enzyme reverses itself; blood/body fluids, sexually transmitted, particularly with drug exposure, decline of CD4 T cells. The virus mutates.
what are treatments for AIDS? antiviral (AZT), cocktail of meds, HAART therapy
Which antibody is matched with its appropriate role? IgA/allergic reaction IgD/in respiratory secretions IgG/first to challenge antigen IgM/first to challenge antigen IgM
A child who contracts chickenpox at age 5 will develop which type of immunity? Active natural passive natural passive artificial active artificial active natural
maternal IgG antibodies are transported across the placenta into the fetal blood and protect the neonate for the first 6 months, after which they are replaced by the child's own antibodies. True or false? True
which would be at greater risk for developing T cell deficiency? 23yo female post thymectomy 42yo male chronic sinus infection 64yo male latex allergies 36yo female post hysterectomy 23 yo female post thymectomy
Created by: LKowadlo