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BJU Life Science 3

Bob Jones Life Science - Chapter 3

cytoplasm All the material, except the nucleus, inside a cell.
cell membrane The thin covering that forms the outer boundary of a cell and that is composed primarily of phospholipids and proteins
selectively permeable membrane A membrane that only certain molecules can pass through
passive transport The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of cellular energy
diffusion A form of passive transport in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport The movement of molecules across a cell membrane, requiring the use of cellular energy
cell wall A rigid structure manufactured by cells of plants, fungi, algae, and most bacteria to surround the cell membrane
organelle One of the cellular structures found in the cytoplasm that perform the functions needed to keep the cell alive
mitochondria The organelles in which aerobic respiration occurs to release usable energy from food
endoplasmic reticulum An organelle consisting of a network of membranes that enable substances to be transported throughout the cell
ribosome A non-membrane-bound organelle that directs the assembling of proteins
Golgi apparatus An organelle that collects chemicals from the cytoplasm, processes them, and secretes them
vacuole A membrane-bound sac that stores various substances, such as water, food, or wastes, within a cell
lysosome An organelle that contains digestive enzymes for disposing of foreign particles and worn-out cellular structures
chloroplast An organelle in plants that contains chlorophyll and other pigments; the organelle in which photosynthesis occurs
cilia Short, hairlike extensions from a cell membrane that aid in movement
flagellum Long, hairlike extensions from a cell membrane that aid in movement
nucleus The organelle in eukaryotes that contains chromosomes; the control center of the cell
eukaryotes A unicellular or multicellular organism whose cell or cells have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
prokaryote A unicellular organism that does not have a membrane around its genetic material and that lacks membrane-bound organelles; an organism in the kingdom Archaebacteria or Eubacteria
irreducible complexity The idea that parts of organisms are so complex and dependent on one another that they cannot be reduced to something less complex and still function, providing evidence for Creation
Created by: heidio