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M6) PS and Lipids

Polysaccharides and lipids are important macromolecules in cells.

Define polysaccharides. Large molecular compounds made of simple sugar units (monosaccharides) linked together.
Define cellulose. A polysaccharide that is a major component in the tough fibrous cell wall of plants that provides structural support.
Define chitin. A polysaccharide that is found in the exoskeletons of organisms. It acts as a hard outer covering around their bodies.
Define starch. A polysaccharide that is the storage form of excess glucose in plants.
Define glycogen. A polysaccharide that is the storage from of excess sugar in vertebrates.
Define lipids. Organic molecules composed of fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol backbone. They are important in organisms for structural and energy storage purposes.
Define phospholipids. A group of lipids including a phosphate group that is a major constituent of cell membranes.
Define adipose tissue. Where fat reserves are stored. It consists of cells that have a small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by fat globules. It can act as energy storage and provides insulation.
Where is adipose tissue usually found? Under the skin and around vital organs like the heart and kidney.
Where are oils usually found and what are they for? In plants. Energy reserves.
Define waxes. A group of lipids that are are produced by plants and animals. One the surface of many leaves there is a waxy cuticle that prevents water loss.
Define steroids. A group of mostly large lipids that are important as functional molecules.
What is a common lipid found in animal cell membranes? Cholesterol.
How much more energy does a gram of fat store compared to a gram of a polysaccharide like starch? Twice as much.
Created by: MahaliaMcD