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neuro diseases patho

neurological disorders patho

what kind of disease is multiple sclerosis? An autoimmune disorder.
What does MS affect? the myelin sheath in CNS. Oligodendorcytes being attacked by immune system causes inflammation. this close nodes of ranvier so impulses can't jump.
What is the etiology of MS? Idiopathic. More common in females in their 20's and 30's. Mostly affects those that live in upper northern climate.
What ate the s/s of MS? Depends on what neuron is being affected. Motor neurons- weak and paralysis. Sensory neurons- affect the senses like the optic nerve results in blindness. Or certain neurons that affect memory and behavior. can be any combination of the three.
What happens to MS s/s when inflammation goes away? s/s goes away too.
What is the diagnosis for MS Scarring of the brain shows up on a CT or MRI.
Treatment for MS? Steriods, anti-inflammatories during flare ups.
what is the prognosis for MS? Unpredictable. Depends on what types of MS.
What does the basal ganglia do for our bodies? Affects the motor cortex pass through basal ganglia to stimulate muscles. Basal ganglia has dopamine which the impulse pick up as the pass through. Dopamine stops some of these impulses.
Whats wrong with the basal ganglia with people with parkinson's disease? Dopaminergic nerves in basal ganglia are damaged and don't stop some of the impulses and they all get through to stimulate and increase muscle tone.
What is the etiology of Parkinson's? Idiopathic, in females more than males and starts after age 50.
What are the S/s of parkinson's? Due to increased muscle tone. Tremor (opposing muscles fighting each other), Reflexion (head to toe, hunched over, reflexors have upper hand on flexors b/c of how attached), blank look on face.
What is the diagnosis of parkinson's? Physical exam, a check list and its positive when you reach a certain score.
Treament for parkinson's? Dopaminergic drugs- raise amount of dopamine in basal ganglia. Sinemet (leuodopa-make, carbidopa-break down slower). to much of these causes schizophrenia. Anticholinergics-decrease muscle activity but to much causes paralysis and GI stops.
Prognosis for parkinson's? Fatal when affects breathing and swallowing but its so gradual that people live long lives.
What is Alzheimer's disease? Amyloid plaques (protein) forms through out brain. Tau tangles (protein found in neurons) destroys neurons and cells collapse.
what does alzheimer's lead to? Cerebral cortex then goes on to affect it all. Leads to dementia.
what is the etiology? Idiopathic increases with age.
What is the pathogensis and s/s of the early stage? Family members can provide care and patients can still have independence. Affects recent memory and can't remember the little things. Emotional changes such as depression, frusration, and anger.
What is the pathogensis and s/s of the early stage? Losing long term memory. 24/7 care is needed. Forget who, where, when and what.Can't perform basic functions like personal care (going to the bathroom, bladder and bowel control).
What is the diagnosis for Alzhiemer's? S/s, imaging to rule out other things that lead to dementia.
What is the treatments for early stage? simplify life - simple meals they can make, meds in daily containers, care giver brings meds at right times so they actually take them.
What are the drugs used for alzhiemer's? Aricept drug- increases acetylcholine in brain. Namenda- memory. Need nursing care 24/7.
What is the prognosis of alzhiemer's? Fatal as it gets worse it affects breathing and swallowing.
Created by: 100000362859866