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eye changes

Myopia nearsighted; when eye over-refract
Hyperopia Farsighted; when eye doesn’t refract enough
Astigmatism unevenly curved surface causing blurred vision
Presbyopia near point vision
optic disk doesn’t contain photoreceptors, making it a blind spot
Age related eye changes Dec eye muscle tone. Fatty deposits cause yellowish tinge. Bluish color when sclera thins. less ability to dilate pupil, difficulty adapting to the dark. presbyopia inc. Far point vision dec. Color perception dec, IOP inc, Can’t hold an upward gaze
Arcus senilis blue/white ring caused by fat deposits, very common but doesn’t affect vision
Cornea flattens with aging worsens astigmatism
Anisocoria different size pupils, affects 5% of population. if pupils different sizes, find out baseline
cataracts caused by congenital, trauma, aging, DM, steroid therapy. Objects appear blurred, glare, double vision, dec color perception. Pupils go from black-grey-milky white. extracapsular extraction is most common surgery
cataracts surgery hemorrhage, sudden sharp pain, inc IOP. If lens implanted pupils constricted, no lens pupils are dilated. Avoid straining. Instill eye drops. Sleep on unaffected side to dec pain &swelling. Report pain, dec vision, swelling, photophobia. Itching normal.
Glaucoma Clouded, blurry vision. lights have halos. Dec peripheral vision, pain, HA, N&V, inc IOP. Avoid tight clothing, heavy lifting, use of mydriatics(atropine. brimonidine tatera avoided if pt is on MAOI
Opened angle glaucoma most common, asymptomatic, gradual loss of vision, visual fields show small crescent shape defects that get larger. Caused by trauma, tumor, hemorrhage
Closed angle glaucoma sudden onset, rare, severe pain, vomiting, HA, halos around light. Sclera red, cornea foggy, pupils nonreactive
glaucoma meds Meds:constricting pupil or dec production of aqueous humor. Timolol (beta blocker) Pilocarpine (miotic), Latanoprost (prostaglandin)
Conjunctivitis caused by bacteria, virus, use warm compresses. Topical antibiotics, hydrocortisone ophthalmic ointment. No pain, no visual impairment. Hemorrhage conjunctivitis: normally heals within 14 days with no treatment
Blepharitis inflammation of the eyelid edges, itchy, red burning eyes, greasy scales. Use diluted baby shampoo
Entropion eyelid turned in causing lashes to rub eyes. Caused by trauma or eyelid spasms, Pain and tearing may be present. The orbicular muscle can be surgically tightened for correction. Instill eyedrops
Hordeolum (stye) sweat gland infection at the lash/lid margin. Caused by staphylococcal organism, use warm compress, antibiotics, incision and drainage.
Chalazion duct obstruction, inflammation of a sebaceous gland in eyelid. Warm compress, ophthalmic ointment, give Asprin to avoid clots. Surgery option. Symptoms: eye fatigue, light sensitivity & excessive tears.
Keratoconjunctivitis Dry eye. Caused by change in tear composition, lacrimal gland malfunction, MS, cranial nerve VII malfunction, vision enhancement surgery. Artificial tears can be used as often as necessary to help.
Keratoplasty removal of diseased corneal tissue for a human donor. donor is free of infection & disease, hep B cannot donate. Elevate HOB 30 degrees, instill antibiotics in eyes, close eyes and apply ice. Discuss donation with the family
Tachoma chronic bilateral scarring form of pink eyes caused by chlamydia. Chief cause of preventable blindness in the world. STD. #1 priority is infection control
Tonomtry measures IOP, cornea anesthetizes, registers degree of indentation on cornea when pressure applied. Pressure increases in glaucoma.
visual field measures range of vision. Client seated measured distance from chart of circles. Fix eyes on the chart indicated when pt 1st sees a pointer, repeat 360 degrees.
retinal detachment flashes of light, blurred or “sooty” vision. Sensation of particles moving in front of vision. Curtain coming down. Caused by trauma, aging, DM, tumor. Don’t more eyes rapidly or jerk head. Surgery to reattach retina, avoid strenuous activity for 3 mo
Hypersensitive retinopathy BP inc, arterioles narrow causes “copper wire” appearance. Narrowing of vessels. If BP remains high areas of ischemia sports, small hemorrhages, HA and vertigo.
Diabetic retinopathy worsened by poor glucose control causes microaneursysms. Need laser therapy. Vitrectomy performed if frequent bleeding into vitreous
macular degeneration area of central vision deteriorates can be atrophic age-related (dry) or exudate (wet) central vision declines. Mild blurring and distortion
Ocular melanoma most common malignant eye tumor in adults. Manifestation not apparent. Enucleation-surgical removal of entire eyeball. Radiation therapy needed
Fluorescein angiography can be toxic. IV access necessary. Skin may have a yellow/green hue a few hours after procedure. Mydriatic drops will be instilled one hr before procedure
important eye info Hyperglycemia & HTN inc risk for vision problems. eye drops: put pressure on side of eye for absorption & hold nose. With reduced vision self-care and independence promoted. Osmoglyn: for pain of eyes, N&V, IOP hemorrhaging. Taken orally. Diamox: dec IOP
Created by: smarti13