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repro + urinary

Reproductive and urinary system disorders

QuestionAnswer
Pelvic Inflammatory disease is most common in what type of women? Nulliparous Women
This disorder is inflammation of the pelvic cavity due to infection of the Fallopian tubes, ovaries and adjacent tissues. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
What disorder is secondary to chlamydia or gonorrhea? Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
What are the S/S of pelvic inflammatory disease? severe pelvic pain, fever and purulent vaginal discharge.
Treatment for PID is...? Antibiotics.
If what is untreated it can lead to scarring of the reproductive tissues and infertility. Pelvic Inflammatory disease
What disease is non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland; not clinically significant unless it obstructs the flow of urine? Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
What is the etiology of BPH? Idopathic, risk increases with age, beginning at about 50.
What are the S/S of BPH? Increased urinary frequency and urgency, difficulty emptying the bladder, weak urine stream.
Digital rectal exam and biopsy to rule out cancer is the diagnosis for what disease? Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
What is the treatment and prognosis of BPH? Surgery and out come is good but surgery may lead to impotence.
The N. Gonorrhoeae bacteria is the etiology for what disease? Gonorrhea
What are the S/S for males with gonorrhea? Purulent urethral discharge and dysuria.
What are the S/S for females with gonorrhea? S/S are often asymptomatic or only mid symptoms that are mistaken for a urinary tract infection-burning, itching and urinary frequency and a cervical discharge.
A bacterial culture is the diagnosis for what disorder? Gonorrhea
What are the treatments for gonorrhea? Antibiotics
With treatment this disease outcome is good. However, is gone untreated this disorder can lead to PID in females and even though it doesn't cross the placenta it can infect the fetus if delivered vagtinally? Gonorrhea
What does Treponema pallidum bacteria causes? Syphilis
What is the first stage of syphilis pathogenesis? Primary syphilis- occurs 10-90 days after exposure. Painless sore at the point of infection ( the discharge from this sore is contagious) and there is the enlargement of the lymph nodes in the groin (painful).
What is the second stage of syphilis pathogenesis? Secondary syphilis - occurs 2-10 weeks after initial infection. There is rash, usually affecting the soles and palms as well as other areas. There is headaches, sore throat, fatigue, fever, body aches and alopecia.
what is the third stage of syphilis pathogenesis? Usually develops 2-7 yrs after initial infection. Cardiovascular damage: aneurysm & inflammation of the aorta, damage to the valves in the heart. there is CNS damage: meningitis, dementia, numbness, paralysis and personality changes.
What does FTA-ABS (test for antibodies against T. pallidum in the blood) diagnosis for? Syphilis
Intramuscular penicillin treats what? Syphilis
What is the prognosis for syphilis? Very good with treatment during the primary and secondary stages. However, damage can be caused during tertiary stage that is irreversible and fatal. Bacteria will cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect fetus and cause stillbirth in 20% of cases.
What does the Herpes simplex virus causes and how many strains are there? Causes genital herpes and there are two strains. HSV-1 or HSV-2.
what strain causes actual herpes and what is more common with cold sores. Strain 2 causes herpes and strain 1 causes cold sores.
what is the etiology of genital herpes? Rash and lesions
How many people affected show S/S? Majority don't show S/S so they never really know that they are infected.
What happens to the lesions? They break and cause pain and itching.
What is the diagnosis for herpes? Exam scrapings off lesion and test blood for HSV.
Acyclovir (Zovirax) helps with what? With genital herpes to reduce frequency and severity of attacks and reducing the chance of giving it to someone else.
What is the prognosis for herpes? Increase risk of cervical cancer. Fatal to fetus if delivered vaginally.
What is a BUN test? Measure urea in blood. High amounts could mean kidney damage but also a high protein diet.
What is Creatinine clearance? Calculation of glomerular filtration rate. Compares how much creatinine goes out of body through urine over 24 hrs and how much is in the blood.
What is the etiology of Glomerulonephritis? Idiopathic or sequela to strep infection. it can be a complication of lupus, HIV, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, or hypertension.
What does "cola-colored" urine, anemia, proteinuria, fluid retention, oliguria, fatigue, elevated blood pressure, lower back pain, fever, increased BUN test, decreased creatinine clearence. Glomerulonephritis
Acute Glomerulonephritis does what? Resolve with no complications.
Chronic Glomerulonephritis does what? Develop into renal failure.
Diuretics, blood pressure meds and pain meds is treatment for what? Glomerulonephritis
Prognosis for Glomerulonephritis is what? Acute is good but chronic leads to renal failure.
End stage of chronic Glomerulonephritis leads of what? Chronic renal failure.
During early chronic renal failure what are the S/S? None except low grade S/S of Glomerulonephritis.
As kidney function decreases what increases and what are the S/S that happen? Uremia increases and there is nausea, fatigue, mental confusion, headaches, cramps, decreased appetite, muscle twitches are when kidney function less than 50%. When kidney function at less than 15% urticaria, GI bleeding, hypertension.
What is the treatment for Renal failure? Dialysis when at less than 15%, transplant, nutritional therapy and regulation of fluid/electrolyte intake.
Prognosis for renal failure is? Fatal with no transplant.
Renal Calculi is what? Mineral deposits (calcium and magnesium salts).
what are the risk factors for Renal Calculi? low fluid intake, male, high protein diet, low calcium intake, inactivity, high salt diet, frequent UTIs.
Severe sharp pain at anytime, hematuria and fever are S/S of what? renal calculi
What needs sympathy, pain meds, strainer to catch/analyze the stones to treat? renal calculi
If renal calculi is bad enough what does it need? surgery or lithotripsy.
What is the prognosis for renal calculi? Resolves without surgery and if you've had it once you'll get it again.
What are the risk factors for UTIs? Being female (10x more likely cuz of short urethra), males will get one due to large prostate gland.
Cloudy urine and strong odor, burning during urination and increase need to pee all the time could indicate what? UTI
What is the treatment for UTIs? Antibiotics, pyridium which is an anti-inflammatory. Take it orally so it runs through urine to sooth bladder and urethra. it turns urine orange.
UTIs increase the risk for what? Kidney stones
Created by: 100000362859866