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ebmryo step

QuestionAnswer
Sonic Hedgehog gene produced at base of limbs. Involved in patterning along A-P axis
Wnt-7 gene Produced at apical ectodermal ridge. Necessary for proper dorsal ventral axis
FGF gene Produced at apical ectodermal ridge. Stimulates mitosis of mesoderm for lengthening of limbs
Hoeeobox (Hox) gene involved in segmental organization of embryo in a cranio-caudal direction.
Hox mutation appendages in wrong location
Fetal landmark Day 0 fertilization, initiation of embryogenesis
Fetal landmark Within week 1 hCG secretion after implantation of blastocyst
Fetal landmark Within Week 2 Bilaminar disc (epiblast, Hypoblast)
Fetal landmark Within Week 3 Trilaminar Disc. Gastrulation, Primitive streak, notochord, mesoderm and its organization, and neural plate begin to form
Fetal landmark Weeks 3-8 Neural tube formed by neuroectoderm and closes by week 4. Organogenesis Susceptible to teratogens
Fetal landmark Week 4 Heart beat. Limbs form
Fetal landmark Week 8 Fetal movement
Fetal landmark Week 10 Genitalia formed
Alar plate Sensory. dorsal
Basalar plate Motor. Ventral
Rule of 2's for 2nd week of embryo 2 germ layers 2 cavities (yolk sac, amniotic cavity) 2 components of placenta (cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast)
Rule of 3's for 3rd week of embryo 3 germ layers (ecto,meso,endo)
Rule of 4's for 4th week of embryo 4 heart chambers 4 limb buds
Adenohypophysis surface ectoderm (from Rathke's pouch)
lens of eye Surface ectoderm
epithelial linings of oral cavity Surface ectoderm
sensory organs of ear surface ectoderm
olfactory epithelium Surface ectoderm
anal canal below pectinate line surface ectoderm
salivary, sweat, and mammary glands surface ectoderm
craniopharyngioma benign Rathke's pouch tumor with cholesterol crystals, and calcifications
Brain, retina, spinal cord Neuroectoderm
ANS, cranial nerves, melanocytes, teeth, nails, PNS, bones of skull Neural crest
anal canal above pectinate line, lungs, liver, pancreas, thymus, parathyroid, bladder, urethra, lower 2/3 vagina endoderm
muscle, bone, peritoneum, spleen, cardiovascular structures, adrenal cortex, testes, ovaries mesoderm
Mesodermal defects VACTERL- vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac deects, traceo-esophageal fistula, renal defects, limb defects
Intrinsic distruption malformation
extrinsic defect deformation
absent organ agenesis
incomplete organ development hypoplasia
absent organ despite primordial tissue present aplasia
fetal renal damage ACE inhibitors
Absence of digits alkylating agents
CN VIII defecits Aminoglycosides
Neural tube defects, craniofacial defects carbamazepine
Vaginal clear cell adencocarcinoma DES
Neural tube defects folic acid antagonists (methotrexate)
Atrialized right ventricle Lithium
microcephaly, dysmorphic craniofacial features, hypoplastic nails and distal phalanges, cardiac defects, IUGR, MR Phenytoin
Discolored teeth Tetracyclines
Limb defects (flipper limbs) Thalidomide
Inhibition of maternal folate absorption Valproate
Bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion, ophtalmologic abnormalites Warfarin
fetal alcohol syndrome MR, microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, limb dislocation, lung fistulas
conjoined twins Monochrorionic, monoamniotic
Monozygotic twins can be any depending on timing of cleavage
Dizygotic Twins Dichorionic diamniotic
Fetal components of placenta Cytotrophoblast- inner later; cyto makes cells Syncytiotrophoblast- outer layer; makes hCG
maternal component of placenta Decidua basalis- derived from endometrium. maternal blood in lacunae
Umbilical vessels 2 arteries 1 vein (derived from allantois)
urine discharge from umbilicus patent urachus (failure to obliterate urachus
outpouching of bladder vesicourachal diverticulum
melena and periumbilical pain Meckel's diverticulum (partial closure of vitelline duct with patent portion attached to ileum)
truncus arteriosus gives rise to ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk (spiral and fuse to form aorticopulmonay septum)
bulbus cordis RV and smooth parts of left and right ventricles
primitive ventricle trabeculated L and R ventricle
primitive atria trabeculated L and R atrium
left horn of the sinus venosus coronary sinus
right horn of sv Smooth part of RA
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein SVC
improper neural crest migration transposition of the great arteries
Membranous septal defect L-->R shunt can become R-->L shunt
patent foramen ovale excessive resorption of septum primum and or secundum
Yolk sac erthyropoiesis 3-8 weeks
liver erthyropoiesis 6-30 weeks
spleen erthyropoiesis 9-28 weeks
bone marrow erthyropoiesis 28 weeks onward
order of erthyropoiesis Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
3 Fetal Shunts Ductus venosus Foramen Ovale Ductus arteriosus
Drug to close PDA Indomethacin
Drug to close PDA Prostaglandins
Umbilical ligament becomes Ligamentum teres
umbilical arteries become medial umbilical ligaments
ductus arteriosus becomes ligamentum venosum
ductus venosus becomes ligamentum venosum
foramen ovale becomes fossa ovalis
allantois becomes urachus and median umbilical ligament
notochord becomes nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc
cerebral hemispheres prosencephalon--> telencephalon -->
Thalmus prosencephalon --> Diencephalon -->
Midbrain Mesencephalon -->Mesencephalon -->
Pons rhombencephalon-->metencephalon-->
Cerebellum
Medulla rhombencephalon-->mylencephalon-->
Spina bifida occulta failure of the bony spinal canal to close but no structural herniation. Dura intact
Meningocele meninges herniate through spinal canal defect
meningomyelocele meninges and spinal cord herniate through spinal canal defect
malformation of anterior end of neural tube; no brain/calvarium, elevated AFP, polyhydramnios Anencephaly
Decreased separation of hemispheres across midline, cyclopia holoprosencephaly; associated with Patau's syndrome, sever FAS, cleft lip/palate
enlargement of central canal of spinal cord Syringomyelia; crossing fibers of spinothalamic tract damages first "cape like" bilateral loss of pain and temp in upper extremities with preservation of touch sensation
1st aortic arch maxillary artery
2nd aortic arch stapedial artery and hyoid artery
3rd aortic arch common carotid and proximal internal carotid
4th aortic arch aortic arch, proximal right subclavian
6th aortic arch proximal pulmonary arteries
Brachial things: Clefts Arches Pouches ectoderm mesoderm endoderm
1st branchial cleft external auditory meatus
2-4th branchial cleft temporary cervical sinuses
persistant cervical sinus brancial cleft cyst within lateral neck
1st branchial arch Muscles and Mastication V2 and V3
2nd branchial arch S's CNVII, stapes, styloid process stapedius stylohyoid
3rd branchial arch greater horn of hyoid, stylopharyngeus, CN IX
4-6 branchial arch thyroid, cricoid, cartilage, 4th cricothyoid CN X (superiour laryngeal branch) 6th rest of larynx (recurrent laryngeal branch)
branchial arch mnemonic when going to the golden arches chew first, then smile, then swallow stylishly, or simply swallow and speak
Created by: srdietz