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Biology SOL Review part 2

does passive transport require energy? no
passive trasport is also known as- diffusion
diffusion substances move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
facilitated diffusion unique type of passive transport in which a membrane carrier protein is used to shuttle ions and molecules across the membrane ( still from high to low concentration)
osmosis the special term applied to the movement of water molecules across the cell membranes (as a result of diffusion)
isotonic H2O moving in and out at equal rates
hypotonic water moves in; cell swells
hypertonic H20 moves out; cell shrinks
active transport requires energy; substances move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
endocytocytosis movement into of cell by way of vesicle
2 forms of endocytosis phagocytosis and pinocytosis
exocytosis movement out of cell by way of vesicle
2 types of active transport proteins and their function ion channels- ex Na+/ K+ pump
binary fission how bacteria reproduces
mitosis process in which eukaryotic cells make an identical copy
prophase chomosomes condense and become visible; nuclear membrane dissapears; centrioles begin to move away from each other
metphase chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
anaphase sister chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and slowly move to opposite poles
telophase and cytokenesis nuclear membrane begins to form around each new set of chromosomes; cell pinches forming two daughter cells
meiosis the process by which sexually reproducing organisms maintain the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation
homologous chromosomes chromosomes exist in these pairs
diploid when a cell has pairs of homolgous chromosomes
haploid some cells possess only ONE set of chromosomes
meiosis involves two rounds of cell division to produce a total of four cells
gametes sex cells- resulting from meiosis
sperm cells when meiosis takes place in the male gonads
spermatogenisis during which 4 sperm cells are produced from each parent cell
ovum (egg cell) in a female this is produced as the result of meiosis
oogenesis process that produces only one ovum- the other three polar bodies will disentigrate
Mitosis v. Meiosis, Mitosis only 1. cell division, 2. diploid cells
Mitosis v. Meiosis, shared characteristics both involve cells dividing
Mitosis v. Meiosis, meiosis only 2. cell division 4. haploid cells
genetics study of heredity
Mendel father of genetics- studied offspring of pea plants
alleles each trait- an expressed characteristic- is produced by this pair of hereditary factors
genotype genetic makeup
recessive trait masked by the dominant trait
symbols for alleles capital letter for dominant; lowercase for recessive
phenotype appearance
homozygous same (pure) TT or tt
Heterozygous different (Tt) hybrid
1st generation P generation
offspring of P generation F1 generation
Offspring of F1 generation F2 generation
monohybrid cross a study of only one trait
punnett square a table using letters to represent possible genotypes
Law of Independent Assortment each gene is inherited seperately from others
dihybrid cross studies two traits at the same time
incomplete dominance blending (red and white flowers produce pink flowers)
codominance both traits expresssed together (ex AB blood)
Sex linked located on X chromosomes, males are more often affected
double helix DNA molecule shape- twisted ladder
Watson and Crick first determined the double helix structure of DNA and built a model
nucleotides each strand of DNA is made up of these repeating subunits
each nucleotide is made up of- sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base
Created by: qesarah
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