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Dillon Ch 15

Assessing the Peripheral-Vascular & Lymphatic Systems

QuestionAnswer
Structures of the Peripheral-Vascular System Arteries and Veins
Structures of the Lymphatic System Lymph Nodes, Tonsils, Thymus, Spleen, Peyer's Patches
Functions of the PV System Arteries: carry 02 rich blood away from the heart, Veins: carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
Functions of the Lymphatic System structures LYMPH NODES: Filter Microorganisms and foreign substances from lymph Tonsils: destroys microorganisms/foreign substances Thymus:helps with T cell differentiation, Spleen: filters blood, produces lymphocytes/monocytes Peyer's Patch: small intestine
What is the function of the lymph nodes? Filter microorganisms and foreign substances from lymph (part of the immune system)
Does the lymphatic system work as part of cardiac system or independently? The lymphatic system does not work independently, it has to work with the cardiac/peripheral-vascular system.
What are some developmental considerations in infants & children, regarding the peripheral-vascular system -Infants have an immature immune system (susceptible to illness) -Thymus grows rapidly from birth to 2 years (thymus stimulates immune system) -Tonsils larger than after puberty -BP 70/50, increases to adult level during adolescence
What are some developmental considerations in pregnant patients, regarding the peripheral-vascular system -Decreased systemic vascular resistance -BP decreases during the second trimester, then increases to pre-pregnant levels
What are some developmental considerations in older adult patients, regarding the peripheral-vascular system -Decreased number and size of lymph nodes -Decreased ability to resist infections (susceptible to infection) -Increased fibrosis (mainly in lymph nodes) and decreased elasticity of vessels
What populations are vulnerable in regard to resistance to diseases? The very young and the very old
What culture has a high incidence of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, failure of antibody response, and cell-mediated immunity, unrelated to AIDS/HIV Native Americans
What cultures have a higher hypertension (HTN) incidence? Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Mexican-Americans, and Iranians
In which culture is HTN a serious problem, as well as a high incidence of AIDS/HIV? African Americans
What subjective data should be assessed in regards to the PV system? Swelling, limb pain, change in sensation, fatigue, and vision changes
What is swelling/edema a sign of? Obstruction/decreased blood flow/lack of circulation, causes fluid to leak out into the tissues
What subjective data should be assessed in regards to the Lymphatic system? Swelling, fatigue, fever, joint pain, slow healing wounds
Pulse sites of the Head & Neck -Temporal -Carotid
Pulse sites of the upper extremities -Brachial -Radial -Ulnar
Pulse sites of the lower extremities -Femoral -Popliteal -Posterior tibialis -Dorsalis pedis
Lymph nodes of the head -Preauricular -Postauricular -Occipital
Cervical lymph nodes -Anterior cervical chain -Posterior superficial cervical chain -Tonsillar or parotid -Submandibular -Submental -Supraclavicular
Upper extremity lymph nodes -Infraclavicular -Axillary -Epitrochlear
Lower extremity lymph nodes -Inguinal (Horizontal and vertical) -Popliteal
Edema that is classified as 1+ would measure how large? 2mm of swelling
Edema that is classified as 2+ would measure how large? 4 mm of swelling
What is pitting edema Pitting edema can be demonstrated by applying pressure to a swollen area by depressing the skin with a finger. If the pressing causes an indentation that persists for some time after the release of the pressure, the edema is referred to as pitting edema.
When performing a physical assessment of the Peripheral Vascular System on a patient what are you going to be palpating for? Pulses - for rate, rhythm, equality, and amplitude (0-4+, with 2+ being desirable)
When performing a physical assessment of the Lymphatic System on a patient what are you going to be palpating for? Lymph nodes - size, shape, tenderness, mobility, consistency, delineation, location, erythema, warmth, and increased vascularity
When performing a physical assessment of the Peripheral Vascular System on a patient what are you going to be auscultating for? Bruits: Temporal, Carotid, Abdominal Aorta, Renal, and Iliac and Blood Pressure
What is the Peripheral Vascular System? The peripheral vascular system is a network of vessels (arteries and veins) that transport oxygenated blood to all body organs and tissues and then returns it to the heart for reoxygenation in the lungs.
What is the function of the Lymphatic System? The lymphatic system collects and drains excess tissue fluid that accumulates from the cardiovascular system and returns this fluid to the heart as well.
What do arteries carry and where does it take it? Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from heart
What do veins carry and where does it take it? Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to heart
A disruption in the PV system can cause pain when a clot has formed, occluding the artery and stopping blood flow. What might you notice about this pt? Swelling in the extremities or lungs, could cause loss of an extremity from no blood flow and therefore no delivery of nutrients to an area causing unhealing wounds leading to infection or necrosis.
What type of system is the Lymphatic System and what other system is it connected to? The lymphatic system is a closed circuit system, connected to the cardiovascular system.
What is the primary function of the lymphatic system? To collect and drain excess tissue fluid that accumulates from the cardiovascular system and return this fluid to the heart
All lymphatic vessels eventually flow into two main vessels - name them The thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct, both located in the thorax
A disruption in the lymphatic system can result in: Reduced range of motion, due to edema (the build up of excess fluid in the tissue) -Susceptibility to infection, due to stasis creating a build up of toxins in tissues and or skin
Created by: MEPN 2013