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Dillon Ch 13

Assessing the Respiratory System

What is the anteoposterior:transverse ratio? 1:2
Where can signs of cyanosis be seen? On the face and lips, also on hands and lower extremities
What is tactile fremitus? Vibrations felt on surface of chest as sound passes through tissue
What may cause decreased tactile fremitus? pneumothorax or obesity
What may cause increased tactile fremitus? fluid/pneumonia
Describe normal bronchial breath sounds and where they can be heard. Loud, harsh, high pitched sound. Longer on expiration than inspiration. Heard anteriorly over trachea and larynx.
Describe normal bronchovesicular breath sounds and where they can be heard. A moderate medium pitched sound. Equal inspiration and expiration. Heard over major bronchi.
Describe normal vesicular breath sounds and where they can be heard. Soft low pitched sound. Longer on inspiration than expiration. Heard over peripheral lung fields.
Describe a wheeze and when it would be heard. High pitched continuous musical sound usually heard on expiration.
Describe a rhonchi and when it would be heard. A low pitched continuous sound usually heard on expiration. Caused by secretion in the large airways.
Describe a crackle and when it would be heard. high piched popping sounds or low pitched bubbling sounds. Discontinuous sounds usually heard on inspiration.
Describe a stridor and when it would be heard. A piercing, high pitched, crowing sound. Heard primarily during respiration.
What is bronchophony? Describe the abnormal sound. Abnormal clarity of spoken word heard through stethoscope. Have patient say "1,2,3" during auscultation. Abnormal if words are clear.
Describe what the abnormal voice sound egophony would sound like. Ask the patient to say "eeee" while you auscultate. The abnormal sound would be if the sound changes from a muffled "eee" to an "aaa" sound
How do you test for pectoriloqy and what would the abnormal sound be? Have client whisper "1,2,3" as you auscultate lung fields. Abnormal sound is if you hear what they are saying clearly. should be faint and indistinct.
What might cause unequal chest excurstion? pneumonia thoracic trauma such as a fractured rib pneumothorax
What causes friction rub and what does it sound like? Caused by inflamed pleura rubbing together. A superficial, low pitched grating sound. Like 2 pieces of leather being rubbed together.
Created by: MEPN 2013