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science finals 2

sydney and roberts guide to how to pass science semester 2

the smallest portion an element can be divided into atom
positive charge located in the nucleas proton
no charge, located in the nucleas neutron
negative charge located outside the nucleas electron
neutral charge nucleas
any substance that cant be broken down element
two or more elements compound
a route through which an electric current can flow circuit
a flow of electrons from a high to low concentration current
a material or device that prevents or reduces the passage of electricity insulator
a substance body or medium that allows electricity to pass along it or through it conductor
example of an insulator rubber
example of a conductor metal
heat energy involves changing temps. ex. candle
nuclear energy energy involved in breaking apart or creating the nucleus of an atom. ex. nuclear bombs
mechanical energy involves movement of physical objects by applications of force. ex. turning tires on a car or turning blades on a fan
electrical energy energy involved by movement of electrons. ex. electricity
light energy energy associated with the movement of photons. example. tanning visible light sunburn
chemical energy energy involving rearranging atoms resulting in creating or destroying a chemical compound. ex. combustion from car engines
3 types of fossil fuels oil, natural gas, coal
description of lignite coal soft chunks; black and dull
description of bituminous coal black chunks, some yellow, shiny
description of peat coal fairly loose, spongy, deposit of plant remains from a water saturated environment.
description of athracite coal more carbon and less water than other types of coal
types of coal from least dense to most dense. peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite
what is the main fossil fuel used in the u.s? coal
if you have high quality of coal, how does that impact energy generation? you have a better energy generation
first step of the coal burning process coal is crushed and mixed with air
second step of the cbp blown into the boiler
third step of the cbp burned in boiler to create steam
fourth step of the cbp turbine powers generator
fifth step of the cbp generator creates electrical power
sixth step of the cbp electricity is transmitted through wires to the house
what do we measure using the calorimeter food energy (calories)
is kilowatt, megawatt, or watt the smallest? and biggest? smallest, watt. biggest, megawatt.
what are they products of a coal burning power plant? sulfer dixodie nitrogen oxides mercury ash
what two compounds are most resposible for producing acid rain? sulfer dixiodes nitrogen oxides
what unit is used to measure particulates microns
what are some negative consequences of thermal pollution? algae bloom, raises temp, lower oxygen levels in water, fish die, fish eggs will not hatch
how does water temp relate to the dissolved oxygen level? the warmer the water the lower dissolved oxygen
which fish would best survive in the highest water temp? large mouth bass
which layer is closest to earth? troposphere
which layer is directly above the stratosphere? mesosphere
which layer contains ozone? stratosphere
which layer is the hottest? thermosphere
carbon dioxide CO2. colorless odorless, nonpoisioness gas, that is a normal part of the air plants use it.
nitrogen oxide NOx. a cheif component of our pollution produced by the burning of fossil fuels (gives smog a brownish color)
sulfur dioxide SO2. a colorless gas that can irriritate the lungs and is a major contribute to acidic depostition when released into the atmosphere.
methane CH4. a colorless odorless gas with a distribution in nature. is the principle components of natural gas.
carbon monoxide CO. an odorless gas that interferes with the delivery of oxygen from the blood to the body and it is very important of the chemistry of the lower atmosphere
pH range for acid 1-6
pH range for base 8-14
pH range for neutral 7
two ways power plants use water cooling and making steam
coal is mostly made of what element carbon
what size particulates are most harmful? smaller
how can fossil fuel power plants have affects on large distances? burning fossil fuels
pollution caused by abnormally heating the air, land , or water thermal pollution
the unit used to measure particulates that equal a length to one millionth of a meter micron
small solid particles & liquid droplets that are suspended in the air. particulate
bad ozone found at ground level. is a pollutant ground level ozone
they form when fossil fuels such as benzone and hydrocarbons do not completely burn ethylane volatile organic compounds (vocs)
invisible gas that has a sharp acidic smell and taste. protects earth from uv rays from the sun ozone
6 predicted effects of global climate change -ecosystem shifts and species extinction -melting ice and snow -more severe weather events -human health problems -ocean levels rise -warmer temperatures
average temp after a long period of time climate
short term atmospheric conditions weather
the reflective quality of earths atmosphere albedo
when something reflects sunlight reflected solar energy
when sunlight is taken in and retained by a substance and converted to heat energy absorbed solar energy
to move electricity to the power plant to the point of use. usually through wires transmit
a condition where greenhouse gasses make the earth warmer by trapping heat in the atmosphere greenhouse effect
an average increase in the earths temp which in turn changes the climate global warming
ocean current that travels from the labrador sea to the eastern tu=ip of south africa. also travels along the coast of north america to northwestern europe. north atlantic deep water circulation
ex of transmitted solar energy plastic wrap
ex of absorbed solar energy black construction paper
ex of reflected solar energy aluminum foil
5 greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and cfc's
which greenhosue gas is the most important? water vapor
what is the main human activity that causes global warming? burning fossil fuels
list 3 ways that methane is produced domesticated animals, cultivating rice, and decomposing garbage.
what did the tree rings show about the clinmate in the past 20 years? warm and dry; small rings
describe two negative results of melting glaciers not as much reflected energy, rising sea levels
whaat type of ground cover absorbs the most energy? bare soil
what type of ground cover absorbs the least energy? ice
what do scientist predict about the warming trend over the next 100 years? it will increase
what is the relationship between albedo and surface temp? if albedo increases, surface temp decreases.
what is the main debate about global warming? whether or not humans caused it or not
what is the argument against global warming? that is is not humans it is the natural cycles of earth.
3 negative health effects for humans of global climate change heat waves/ heat related deahts, spread of diseases, and air quality problems
alternative energy, nuclear nucleas of atom split to make energy
ae, hyrdroelectric flow of water
ae, biomass organic matter
ae, geothermal water geysers
ae, solar sun's energy (panels)
ae, wind turbine catches the wind power
what are two drawbacks of using the alternative energies -expensive -not consistent power, needs another power when it is not available
a layer of soil horizon
name an element that has an equal amount of protons and neutrons carbon nitrogen and oxygen
independant variable does not change
dependant variable changes
what locations on earth reflect the most sunlight? the poles, russia , greenland, norway, northern africa
which locations on earth reflect the least sunlight? south america, south africa, australia, north america
Created by: robertc2234