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Neoplasm Objectives

Neoplasm for Pathophysiology

QuestionAnswer
Benign tumor Not cancer
Malignant cancer
Benign tumor normal cells/similar
Benign tumor differentiated
benign tumor mitosis normal
benign tumor growth slow
benign tumor expanding mass
benign tumor remains localized
benign tumor rare systemic effects
benign tumor not life threatening unless in brain
Malignant varied in size & shape w/large nuclei
malignant many undifferentiated
malignant mitosis increased & atypical
malignant rapid growth
malignant cells not adhesive
malignant invades nearby tissues
malignant metastasizes to distant sites via blood & lymph vessels
malignant systemic effects often present
malignant life threatening by tissue
malignant destruction & spread of tumors
local effects of malignant pain, obstruction, tissue necrosis
systemic effects weight loss, anemia, severe fatigue, infections bleeding, paraneoplastic syndromes
Warning signs of cancer unusual bleeding or discharge anywhere in the body
Warning signs of cancer change in bowel or bladder habit (prolong diarrhea)
Warning signs of cancer sore that does not heal
Warning signs of cancer change in wart or mole (size, shape, color)
Warning signs of cancer unexplained weight loss
Warning signs of cancer anemia, low hemoglobin, persistent fatigue
Warning signs of cancer persistent cough or hoarseness w/o reason
Warning signs of cancer solid lump, painless, in breast, testes or anywhere
common diagnostic test for cancer blood test
common diagnostic test for cancer tumor markers
common diagnostic test for cancer x-ray, ultrasound, MRI, CT
common diagnostic test for cancer cytoliogic (biopsies)
spread of malignant tumors invasion/stage 1
spread of malignant tumors metastasis/stage 4
spread of malignant tumors seeding/stage 2, 3
staging cancer primary tumor size (t)
staging cancer node involvement (n)
staging cancer metastasis (m)
cachexia weight loss (severe muscle wasting)
initiating cause 1st change to cell
promoters hormones & environmental chemicals
exposure continued
metastasis spreading
risks genetic, viruses, radiation, chemicals, biologic, age, diet, hormones
prevention limit sun exposure, regular medical & dental exams, alter diet
host defenses against cancer cancer suppressors/Tcells
tumor nomenclature tumors named according to a system
carcinogenesis process which normal cells transformed into cancer cells
treatment measures curative, palliative
adverse effects of chemotherapy/radiation nausea, hair loss, loss of appetite
implication for physical therapy active, want to eat
treatment measures surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy
dose limiting low cell count
anaplasia lack of differentiation
transformation conversion of normal cells to cancerous
general treatment side effects #1 fatigue
palliative alleviating symptoms
Created by: jklincoln