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Igneous rocks that formed slow below the surface are called Plutonic-itntusive rocks
a tabular igneos intrusive body that cuts across other rocks is called a dike
small steep sided volcanoes built up of unconsolidated pyroclastic material (tephra) are called cinder cones
igneous rocks that formed fast at the surface are called volcanic-extrusive rocks
which of the following list contains only fossil fuels? coal, oil, natural gas
the hawaiian volcanoes Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are characterized by gentle slopes compose of numerous basaltic flows. These are examples of Shield volcanoes
1. intrusive igneous rocks commonly have_____crystals that volcanic igneous rocks. larger
2. Bowen's reaction series is important because it helps explain the mineral assemlages of igneous rocks ,it helps explain the sequence of crystallization ,it helps explain how a magma can change composition over time
3. most og the hydrocarbons within oil and natural gas are derived from the breakdown of organic matter from once living plankton
4. coarse grained diorite is most similar in mineral composition to fine grained andesite
5. aside from the possibility of a meltdown, nuclear power provides no other major problems or concerns False
6. _______ are large intrusive (plutonic) igneous bodies consisting of many plutons. batholiths
7. lava flows with blocky, sharp irregular surfaces are called Aa
8. ancient underwater eriptions can be recognized in the rock record by the presence of pillow lavas
9. the hawaiian island are an example of volcanism cause by a ____ hot spot
10. basalts typically form at divergent plate boundaries, oceanic hot spots
which of the follwing is a nonrenewable resource? coal
ropey lava flows are called_____ pahoehoe
important volatiles in magmas include water and carbon dioxide
Mt. Pinatubo formed in which of the following geologic settings oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundary
the most explosive volcanoes, consisting of alternating layers of pyroclastic flows and solidified lava. that are found landward of subduction zones are called___________ cinder cones
the greatest hazard to human life associated with volcanoes is___ pyroclastic flows
Aphanitic compsed of small crystals from fast cooling
Glassy no minerals present because it cooled so fast
Porphyritic composed of visable crystals from slow cooling
Rock: obsidian glassy, felsic compsition
rock : Scoria vesicular, mafic composition
Rock: Pumice vesicular, felsic composition
Rock: basalt aphanitic, mafic composition
Rock GRANITE phaneritic, felsic compostion
explain each of the factors that determine the natural of volcanic eruption. specifically relate these to the volcanoes eruptive history. (passive vs. Explosive) example: Mt. St. Helen -low temp-explosive-vescocity thick-high pressure strataHawaii -passive-high temp-fluid- shield
define renewable and nonrenewable resources. Give at least 3 examples of each (excluding water) Renewable: natural remplished over time sustainable long termEx: solor wind and biomass hydo electric nonrenewable : which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which cansustain its consumption rate takes million of yeas to make
EX: coal petroleum, fossil fuel Lava
discuss the early warning signs of volcanic eruption earthquakes tsunami escretion of ashsulfur water gases increase temp
discuss the formation of oil. be sure to include the sources of the hydrocarbons and the temp. ranges diatons are presented along with planquenten and they are heated up between 90 and 160 degrees made of ocean setements
____flows can travel over 100mph killing everything in their way. pyroclastic
when intruding magma melts the country rock (bedrock) and that material is added to the magma, this proceed is called ___ assimilation
_____ are commonly malleable, ductile and good conductors of electricity and have many applications. metals
_____are large depression formed by collapse after a major eruption. calderas
coal is the altered remains of ____
______ mineral resources include talc, gypsum and halite. non mettalic
record from at least___ seismographs are necessary for determing an earthquake epicenter. Three(3)
regional metamorphism is characterized by ____temperatures and ___ pressure high, low
the ________ era is characterized by "age of mammals" cenozoic
If there is 6.25% of the parent isotope and 93.75% of the daughter isotope presnt in a rock sample and we know the 1/2 life is 10 million years. how old is the rock? *40 million years*
the potential for the a large earthquake on a fault segment can be evaluated based on statistical data of post earthquakes seismic gaps
an unconformity where sedimentary rock sits on top of crystalline basement rock (igneous and metamorphic)is called nonconformity
_____wer responsible for the Northrige earthquake and the Coalinga earthquake blind thrust fault
most of the damage done by earthquakes is cause by these seismic wave surface(L & R) waves
the common effect of earthquakes include (the Loma Prieta earthquake illustrated these nicely) ground rupture, liquefaction, ground shaking ,landslides
the difference in the arrival times of the P and S waves on a seismogram helps geologist determin the distance to the epicenter
seismic waves radiate outward from _____ as energy is realsed during an earthuake the hypocenter (focus)
contact metamorphism occurs when magma "bakes" the rock intrudes
regional metamorphism affects rocks over large areas near convergent plate boundaries
you are walking on the beach and the water starts rapidly receding .. what would be the most reasonable thing for you go? head to higher ground because a Tsunami may hit
Rock :Gneiss foliated and banded (pr) granite or schist
Rock: slate thin platy, foliated, (pr) mudstone
Rock: Sandstone lithified sand, beach or dune
Rock Travertine banded calcite, cave
Rock: Marble crystalline calcite, (pr) limestone
Rock: conglomerate rounded pebbles, rivers
Rock: Coquina broken shell fragmnts,high energy surf zone
Environment: shallow marine marine fossils in limstone or sandstone
Environment: Dune large scale cross bedding and well sorted sand
environemnt: Glacial poorly sorted, non-stratified deposits, U shaped valley
Environment: River gravel, sand and silt-fining upward sequence- Conglomerate and sandstone
The process where sediments are turned into sedimentary rocksis called cementation
organisms are _____when they undergo permineralization and replacement petrified
earthquakes that follow the main earthquake are called aftershock
____are large seismic generated sea waves that can do major destruction tsumami
segments on major faults where there was not been any refent earthquake activity are called seismic____. these areas have a high potential for a major earthquake. gaps
the principle of ____________ states that "the present is the key to the past. it was proposed by ______ uniformatarinism, James Hutton
what should u do before, during and after an earthquake? BEFORE: prepare by stabilazing big objects around the house, prepare emergency kits and come up with a plan, DURING: duk cover and hold, AFTER: call family member outside of the state to check in, localize gas meter and turn it off , aid those with seriou
Describe how the epicenter of an earthquake is located. Diagrams may be useful the epicenter of an earthquake is located by the P waves and S waves. the P wavesis the strongest wave as it hits it creates little waves such as the S waves. Calculating the distance from each wave it helps locate the epicenter. need at least 3 triangula
based on the videos and lecture comment on the earthwauke risk in each of the following cities a.) los angeles B) san francisco C) fresno. in your discussion discuss which faults near these cities create most of the potential risk for future seismicity? A.) Los Angeles: high risk, Elysian Park, blind thrust ,B) San Francisco- High risk, San Andreas fault blind thrust,C) Fresno : low risk, Hayward fault, The san andreas fault is at potential risk these cities for future seismicity
describe the difference between earthquakes intensity and earthquake magnitude. what does each one measure and on what scare are they measured? the difference between intesity and earthquake magnitute is that intesity is damaged(mercalli scale) and magnitude is energy (richter scale) realesed. they are measured byt the seismic scale and seismograph.
List and define 5 Geological principles Superposition:,Cross cut Inclussion , Latitude contilillity, Original horizontally
fossilized fecal material is called coprolite
The SanAndreas Fault is an example of a strike slip fault
an atom is? the smallest unit of matter that retains the characteristic of an element.
ionic bonds occur when electrons? are transfered between atoms
the most important group of rock formin minerals is the? silicates
the man credited with developing the continental drift hypothesis is Wegener
Scientist called tentative explanation or "educated guess" a? Hypothesis
the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness determined by its atomic structure is called? cleavage
the atomic mass of an element is equal to.... number of protons = number of neurons
minerals are classified into mineral groups based on chemical make-ip
the main difference between oceanic and continetal crust is that continental crust is? thicker, granitic (felsic) less dense
scientist's estimate that the earth is _____ years old. 4.5 Billion
which of the following describes the light refelction charachteristic of a mineral luster
the _____,which consist of thecrust and upper mantle, forms the relatevily cool,brittle plates ofplate tectonics lithiosphere
the resistance of a mineral to scratching or abrasion is called hardness
Evidence of the big bang comes from the fact that light from distance galaxies appear to be___. this phenomena is explained by the Doppler Effect. red-shifted
the earth's surface is protected from solar wind and cosmic radiation by ... earth's magnetic field
subduction zones are commonly foundnear deep sea trenches, oceanic-continental plates boundaries, wadati-benioff zones
the subdivision of the earth's that makes up most volume is the____ which is mainly composed of ____ mantle , peridotite
some early scientist thought that the earth was the cener of the Universe. This view was called a _____ model Geoncetric
the terrestrial planets of rocky planets are mercury, venus, earth, mars
List and describe 5 pieces of evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics (and/or continental drift) (include some recent evidence) 1: acient glacier caps movement 2: acient coral reefs found in Africa and Other pats 3: fossils of animals who can't swim on other parts of world 4: jugsaw Puzzle with the continents that fit into place 5: different subduction areas located between Africa
What is a mineral? example
what is a rock? example a: is any naturally occurring, inorganic substance, often additionally characterized by an exact crystal structureexample: Basalt b: mixture of naturally occurring substances, mainly minerals Example: quartz
Discuss how scientist's think the solar system formed? scientist believe the solar system was formedby a supernova explosion that occuredin space. Different particles flew everywhere and gases. Seismic disc then formed by thesedifferent particles that formed a ball as it roated.Meteroid would hit the object a
list 6 rocks and. or minerals and their common uses 1: granite:counter tops 2: copper: electrical wiring 3: diamond : to cut other diamonds and for mirrors 4: fluroide: tooth paste 5: sulfur: cosmetic or powder 6: pumice- rock to rubskin
Briefly define and describe the three major rock groups including which processes are involved in their formation. Give an example of one rock type for each group. metamorphic- heat and pressure ex: quartz sedimintary- compaction and cementary ex: conglomerate igneous- cool and solidifcation of magma ex: obsedian
_____ is molten rock that occurs at the surface Lava
_____ is the earth system that consist of all the water on earth Hydrosphere
compaction and cementation is called Lithification
_____ was the supercontinent that existed at the end of the Paleozoic and consisted of all the continets together Pangea
When oceanic crust is pushed under the continental crust and descends into the mantle, this process is called subduction
the Hawaiian Islands are thought to have formed by volcanism associated with a hot spot
Minerals or rocks that contain Iron and Magnesium are saidto be _____in composition mafic
Deltas streams enters standing water velocity deacres
Drainage basin (watershed land areas that deain into a specific trunk stream and divide
Drainage patterns dendritic-branching “tree like” uniform material
Radial form a point uplift (mesa,volcano
Rectangular: controlled by jointed rocks
Trellis : alternating resistant and weak rocks
Engineering efforts levees,Increase channel volumes, transmit intensified flood problems downstream
control dams: hold water back from trunk streams
of saturation (phreatic zone), formation, water not held as soil moisture percolates downward , water reaches zone were all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completl filled with water
of aeration (vadose zone): area above the water table , includes the capillary fringe and the belt of soil moisture, water cannot be pumped by wells
table upper limit of the zone of saturation
streams (effluent) gain water from the inflow of groundwater through the streambed
streams (influent ) lose water to the ground water system by outflow through the streambed
Recharge Leaky Acres
Porosity percentage of total volume of rock or sediment that consists ofpore space
Permeability the ability of a material to transmit a fluid
Aquifer permeable rock strata or sediment that transmits groundwater freely (such a sands and gravels)
Aquitard an impermeable layer that hinders or prevents water movement
(such as clay)
of groundwater very slow
of groundwater very slow
Springs : • Occur where the water table intersects Earth’s surface • Natural outflow of groundwater
water: • Can be caused by an aquitard creating a localized zone of saturation
Drawdown (lowering) of the water table cone of depression in the water table
table aquifer he upper limit of the zone of saturation
aquifer :Artesian wells
Problems- Subsidence
Mass wastin grefers to the downslope, movement of rock, regolith, and soil under, the direct influence of gravity
factors for mass wasting adds mass and lubricate removing vegitatio, oversteepening slopes: landmass will slump down ,removal of vegetation:, earthquakes:
Created by: margs10