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EMTP - Chap 1-4

Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care - Brady Books 2011

Microscopic Anatomy Study of structures only seen with magnification (cytology & histology)
Macroscopic Anatomy Study of structures visible to naked eye (xray)
Pathology Study of disease
Cardiology Study of heart
Gastrologist One who studies the stomach
Rhinoplasty Surgical repair of the nose
Pericarditis Inflammation around the heart
Cardiologist One who studies the heart
Cardiopathy Disease of the heart
Gastritis Inflammation of the stomach
ACLS Advanced cardiac life support
CA Cancer
CXR Chest x-ray
CAD Coronary artery disease
NPO Nothing by mouth, nil per os
p.r.n. Whenever needed
STAT Statim, immediately
Disease Not at ease
Diagnosis Know through or completely
Syndrome Specific grouping of signs and symptoms
Etiology Cause of the disease
Homeostasis Stable environment in the body
Negative feedback loop A feedback loop that opposes the stimulus, maintaining homeostasis
Positive feedback loop Increases the magnitude of change, a change away from the ideal
Superior, cranial, cephalic Toward the head or upper body
Inferior, caudal Away from the head or toward the lower part of the body
Anterior, ventral Toward or on the front of the body
Posterior, dorsal Toward or on the back of the body
Medial Near the middle or midline of the body
Lateral Located away from the midline or on the side
Proximal Close to the point of reference of the body
Distal Away from the point of reference of the body
Transverse or Horizontal Plane Superior & Inferior division (top & bottom)
Median or Midsagittal Plane Right and left halves (equal sides, center of body)
Sagittal Plane Right and left halves (not equal in size)
Cranial cavity Contains brain
Spinal (vertebral cavity) Contains spinal column
Chondriac Ribs, cartilage
Hypochondriac Lower rib region located right and left lateral
Hypogastric Inferior to umbilical region, flanked by right and left iliac or inguinal regions
Umbilical Region The area around the belly button
Carpal Wrist
Gluteal Buttocks
Orbital Eye Area
Plantar Sole of foot
Axillary Armpit
Antebrachial Forearm
Antecubital Depressed area in front of elbow (elbow pit)
Buccal Cheek
Atom Smallest unit of element, contains protons, neutrons & electrons
Proton Positively charged particle
Neutron Neutral particle
Electron Negatively charged particle, rotates around nucleus & found in shells
Electrolytes Charged ions found in the body, influence the nervous system, muscle activity and fluid balance
Important Electrolytes Potassium (K+), Sodium (Na+), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2), Chloride (Cl-), Hydrogen Phosphate (HPO4-), Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Acid Chemical that can release hydrogen ions
Base Accepts hydrogen ions, bitter taste (bicarbonate)
Ionic Bond One atom donates electrons to another atom
Covalent Bond When electrons are shared equally by the atoms involved in the bond
Polar Covalent Bond Covalent bond that is unequal, one atom takes more than its share of shared electrons
Hydrophilic Water loving molecules
Hydrophobic Water fearing molecules
Hydrogen Bond When water molecules bind weakly to the oxygen on another water molecule
Solution when one substance is dissolved in another
Solute Dissolved substance
Solvent Substance doing the dissolving
Solute Concentration Amount of solute dissolved in a solvent
Polar Have a charge
Element What all matter is made of
Na Sodium
Fe Iron
Cu Copper
Zn Zinc
Mn Manganese
I Iodine
F Florine
NaCl Salt
H Hydrogen
He Helium
Li Lithium
K+ Potassium
Cl- Chloride
HPO-4 Hydrogen Phosphate
HCO-3 Bicarbonate
Acids & Bases Electrolytes that conduct electricity and break down (dissociate) in water.
Regulates acid/base balance Respiratory & Renal
Respiratory system Take in air and get rid of carbon
Ionization of water is .... Weak
ph >7 Alkaline
pH <7 Acidic
pH+p0H= 14
Glycogen Molecule in liver used to store energy
Disaccharide Two monosaccharides hooked together
Monosaccharide Simple sugars have 5-6 carbons
C Carbon
Molecule categories Carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Carbohydrates molecular makeup 1 carbon/2 hydrogens/1 oxygen
Sucrose Table sugar
Glucose C6H12O6
Lactated Ringers Sodium 130/Potassium 4/Calcium 3/Chloride 109/Osmolarity 273
Saline Sodium 154/Chloride 154/Osmolarity 308
D5W Osmolarity 252
D10W Osmolarity 505
Hydro Water
Phil Love
Phobia Fear
Lipids Carbon & hydrogen, little o2, hydrophobic, store energy, communication & protection (Cholesterol, triglycerides)
Biological molecules Found in living things, contain (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen)
Carbohydrates are ..... Sugars/Starches
Waxes Lipids
Phospholipid have .... Two fatty acid tails, tail is hydrophobic, head is hydrophilic
Steroid Lipid with carbon atoms arranged in rings (cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone)
Protein Long Chain of Amino Acids, act as collagen in tendons and ligaments, protects against infection, stores energy, allows cells to communicate, speeds up reactions (enzymes)
Peptide bond Ties amino acids together and is unique to protein molecules
Nucleic Acid RNA/DNA/genetic code/control activities of cells
Metabolism All chemical operations within body
Anabolism Built up, growth, repair & reproduction
Catabolism Break down
Dehydration synthesis Water is removed and biological molecules join to form larger molecules
Hydrolysis reactions Catabolic reactions that use water to break apart larger molecules
Abnormal catabolism Starvation
Organelles Small cell parts
Enzymes Special protein needed for dehydrations synthesis & hydrolysis, speed up chemical reactions, special binding sites, carry biological molecules and substrates. Specific.
Full binding sites Saturated
Inhibited enzymes prevent substrate from binding
Digestion Breaking down of food
Cellular Respiration Glucose is combined with O2 and transformed in mitochondria into ATP
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
ATP is made of .... A base (sugar and three phosphates)
ATP becomes ADP When a bond is used
ATP is produced in Mitochondria of the cells
Electron Transport Chain contains Four enzyme systems that produce ATP & Water
pH is measure of Acidity or Alkalinity
Atoms are bound together to form Molecules
If electrons are shared by atoms the bond is covalent
Carbon dioxide is a weak Acid
If one atom gains electrons while the other loses the bond is ionic and the molecule is polar
Atoms gain or lose electrons causing them to have a charge
Smallest unit recognizable chemically element
Elements are made of atoms
Atoms consist of neutrons and protons surrounded by electrons
All living matter is composed of elements
Water is polar covalent molecule
Water is the basis of all body fluids
Molecules that mix with water polar and hydrophilic
Molecules that will not mix with water are hydrophobic
Solutions consists of substance dissolved (solute) in a liquid (solvent)
Solvent in biological systems is water
Living things are made of _____ molecules biological
Biological molecules fall into four categories Proteins, carbs, lipids and nucleic acids
Cells must have ____ to carry out metabolism ATP
ATP is made via cellular respiration
Enzymes, biological catalysts necessary for cellular metabolism
Metabolism is dependent on Breakdown and manufacture of biological molecules
Each type (carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids have unique characteristics
Electrolytes are charged ions
Cells are building blocks
# of cells in human body 7.5 trillion
Name some Cell types Bone, nerve, connective tissue, skeletal, blood, smooth, fat
Cell Membrane is also known as plasma membrane
selectively permeable semi permeable
Cell membrane acts a ________ covering protective
All human cells contain nucleus (except red blood cells), organelle, cytoplasm & cell membrane
Cell membrane is made of Double layer of phospholipids oriented tail to tail
Cell membranes contain abundant amounts of cholesterol
Proteins act as channels so substrates may pass across the cell membrane
All cells must have a membrane to maintain integrity and survive
Hydro____ cells prevent passage/Hydro ______ pass easily through the cell membrane Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic
Movement across cell membrane - two ways Passive and Active Transport
Passive requires ____ energy No
Four types of passive transport diffusion, osmosis, filtration, facilitated diffusion
Diffusion is Most common passive transport - solute travels from high to low concentration
Osmosis is Passive transport - water travels through a selectively permeable membrane when a concentration gradient is present - low to high - pulled by osmotic pressure - until concentration is same on both sides.
Osmotic pressure pulled from lower to higher concentration. Greater the concentration of solute the greater the osmotic pressure.
Water has a _____ solvent polar
Water passes through special ______ in the cell membrane passages
Filtration Pressure applied to force water and dissolved materials across a membrane (Passive)
Major supplier of force in the body is the pumping heart
Where filtration takes place in the body kidneys. The heart forces blood flow into the kidneys
Facilitated Diffusion substance is assisted via carrier molecule in a direction it was already traveling (high to low)
Facilitated Diffusions is highly specific, only able to carry one type of molecule, subject to saturation, competition and inhibition (carriers are blocked)
Glucose is also know as dextrose
Glucose is the principal ____ used by cells for energy production Carbohydrate
Most energy production occurs in the mitochondria
Glucose molecule is too large to enter the cell through diffusion
Glucose enters the cell through facilitated diffusion using protein transport
During stress ____ stores are depleted ATP
In the intestine and kidneys glucose transport requires energy
Active transport of _______ is uncommon glucose
Three types of active transport Active transport pumps, endocytosis, Exocytosis
Endocytosis Moving substances into the cell using vesicles
Exocytosis Transport of material to the outside of the cell using vesicles
Active Transport Pump Require additional energy (ATP) to move substances against the gradient (low to high) using carriers
exo outside
endo within
cyt cell
osis condition
phago eating
pino to drink
phagocytosis Form of endocytosis - solid particles are brought into the cell in a vesicle
pinocytosis Liquid substance transported in a water filled vesicle into the cell
Cytoplasm Special environment inside a cell that the cell needs to survive
Nucleus Brain of the cell or control center
Nucleus dictates the activities of the organelles
Nucleus is surrounded by a double walled membrane with large pores to allow certain material to pass in and out
Chromatin material found in nucleus that contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Chromatin forms chromosomes which contain genes
Nucleolus spherical body made of dense fibers
Nucleolus major function is to synthesize RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Ribosomes are organelles found on endoplasmic reticulum or floating around in the cytoplasm
Ribosomes are made of RNA
Ribosomes assist in the production of enzymes and other proteins to repair and reproduce,
Centrosomes Builds new cells
Centrosomes contain centrioles that are involved in the division of cells. Tubular and found in pairs
Mitochondria Tiny bean shaped organelles, provide 95% of bodys energy for cellular repair, movement and reproduction.
ATP is made in the mitochondria
If a cell type is ver active there are a larger number of _____ in that cell mitochondria
Liver can have up to ______ mitochondria in each cell 2000
Sperm cells swim with a tail called a flagellum
Endoplasmic reticulum channels in the cytoplasm formed from folded membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum comes in two forms Rough & Smooth
Rough endoplasmic reticulum has _____ on its surface and is responsible for the synthesis of ______ ribosomes/protein
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has _____ on its surface no ribosomes
Once the protein is synthesized it is sent to the ____ for processing Golgi
Golgi Organelle looks like flattened membranous sacs, processes and stores and surrounds the protein with a vesicle and travels to the membrane where it releases it (exocytosis)
The digestive system have a _____ number of Golgi high
Some proteins made in the Golgi stay in the cell and become lysosomes
Lysosomes are _____ and maintain health by destroying bacteria with a process called ______ Multitalented/phagocytosis
Lysosomes are vesicles containing powerful_____ enzymes that ______ up intracellular debris and other waste hydrolytic/clean
Hydrolytic enzymes speed up hydrolysis reactions
Cytoskeleton network of microtubules and interconnected filaments that provide shape and allow the cell to move
Flagella Whip shaped tails that move the cells similar to a tadpole
Cilia short microsopic hairlike located on cell surface that move in a wavelike motion and move the cell in a given direction
Ciliary Action Clean the lungs of dust particles and germs
Cellular reproduction making new cells
Cell division divides cells in two
Eukaryotic cell Cells that make up the human body
Asexual reproduction Cell made an identical copy of itself without another cell
Bacteria has _____ chromosome one
Human cells have ____ chromosomes 46
Bacterials cells do not have _____ and reproduce easily through ______ organelles or a nucleus/binary fission
All ________ must be copied before a cell can divide Chromosomes
Mitosis The process of sorting the chromosomes so that each cell gets the right number of copies of all the genetic material. Mitosis is how eukaryotic cells reproduce asexually
Eukaryotic cell life phases called the cell cycle which consists of two major phases Interphase and mitotic phase
Interphase Cell is not dividing, but stockpiling materials and preparing for division by copying dna and making organelles.
Mitotic Phase is____ and divided into two parts _____ Brief portion devoted to cell division. Two parts - Mitosis is cell division/genetic sorting & Cytokinesis is division of cytoplasm
Mitosis is divided into 4 phases prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Prophase Nucleus disappears, chromosomes appear and anchor lines, guide wires, spindle forms
Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the center
Anaphase Chromosomes split and spindles pull apart
Telophase chromosomes far end of cell, spindle disappears and nuclei reappear
Pro before
Meta between
Ana without
Telo the end
Cytokinesis happens the cell divides in half during or immediately after telophase
Mother cell divides into two daughter cells
Mitosis vs meiosis Mitosis -asexual, produces an exact copy. Meiosis - produces gametes or sexual cells, contain half of ea cell of a female and male cell
metastasis breaking off and spreading of malignant cells
Magnetotaxis the bacterias ability to move in response to magnetic forces. bacteria possess iron oxide stored in a cell called magnetosome
Capsid Protective protein coat on viruses
Staphyl bunch
Strept chain
Fungi or fungus one celled or multicelled
Mycelia tiny filaments
Fungi spread through the release of spores
Fungi usually do not affect us but can affect a damaged _____ or damaged _____ immune system/ cells
Protozoa one celled and causes disease through ingestion or insect bites
Fungai examples yeast, ringworm, aspergillus, cryptococcus
Plasmodium causes malaria protozoa
trypanosoma causes sleeping sickness protozoa
Created by: jjholmquest