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Introductory Dosage Information

Solid Drug Powder Tablet Pill Bolus Pessary Suppository
Liquid Drug Mixture Tincture Spirit Suspension Elixir Emulsion Extract Infusion Decoction Injection Liniment Lotion
Semisolid Drug Ointment Cream Paste Electurary
Gases Or Vapor Drugs Aerosol Spray Mist
Powder A mixture of drugs packaged in packets or sachets
Tablet Active drugs combined with a binder and excipient. The mixture is compressed into tablets by machine. Disk like shape. Can be scored or unscored.
Enteric-Coated Tablets Irritant tablets or which are destroyed by gastric acid are coated with phenylsalicylate (salol) or other substance, which is insoluble in acid, but will dissolve in the alkaline small intestine.
Pill Consists of a mixture of drugs & a sticky binder in the form of ovoid or spherical mass, which is provided with a glazed sugar coating.
Capsule Is a container made of mixture of gelatin and glycerin and is suitable for drugs in powdered form and certain liquid drugs.
Bolus A large and cylindrical in shape. It is used for horses & cattle.
Mixture An aqueous solution or suspension intended for oral administration. Aromatic water (aqueous solution of a volatile oil such as peppermint or cinnamon) is added to prevent contamination with bacteria or mold.
Pessary Conical solid preparation for intravaginal use in humans.
Suppository Conical solid preparation given intrarectally for systemic effect in humans. It melts and releases its active ingredients after being introduced into the body.
Paste Semisolid preparation for either external use (on the skin) or internal use.
Electurary Semisolid preparation which is applied on the back of the tongue for a systemic effect.
Tincture Alcoholic liquid preparation of nonvolatile substance either for external or internal use.
Spirit Alcoholic liquid preparation of a volatile substance.
Suspension Aqueous suspension of solids & usually contains a dispersing agent (gum tragacanth or methyl cellulose) to delay settling. The bottle should contain the phrase 'shake well before use'. Insoluble solid in liquid, usually separates.
Syrup Solution of medicinal agents, flavoring and coloring agents in an 85% sucrose solution (more than 50% sucrose).
Elixir Hydro-alcoholic solution of medicinal agents that have been sweetened and flavored (it has a better keeping quality than a mixture because of high alcohol content).
Emulsion Consists of an oily substance dispersed in an aqueous medium with an emulsifying or a dispersing agent (gum acacia, lecithin or methyl-cellulose). Consists of two immersible liquids.
Extract Obtained by passing the solvent over the dried plant material (percolation) then evaporation of the solvent, or placing the crude material in the solvent until the active substances are extracted (maceration).
Infusion Extract When cold water or warm water is used in an extract.
Decoction Extract If boiling water is used in an extract.
Injections Sterile solutions or suspensions in aqueous (sometimes and oil vehicle). Heat sterilized or if unstable to heat are filtered through Millipore filters. Some drugs are unstable in solution and are packaged aseptically in vials.
Injections Reconstituted with sterile H2O immediately before injection. Tablets for injections are somewhat similar to powder in vials.
Repository Forms (Slow Release Form) Sustained release forms prolong effective drug concentration in the body by providing for sustained release from the dosage form.
External Dosage Forms (Red Label) Liniment Lotion Ointment Cream Dusting Powder
Liniment A liquid or semisolid preparation to be applied on the skin with friction (rubbing). Generally contains counterirritants used in chronic inflammation of muscles and tendons.
Lotion Solution or suspension of soothing substances to be applied on the skin in acute inflammation to relieve pain.
Ointment Semisolid greasy preparation in which the drug is dissolved or dispensed in a suitable base.
Cream Incorporates a drug in water-oil emulsion. Water will evaporate following application, leaving the drug and a thin film of oil on the skin.
Dusting Powder Mixture of drugs in powder form for external use such as talc or starch as adsorbents.
Gases Or Vapors Aerosol
Aerosol Drug incorporated in a suitable solvent and packaged under pressure with a propellant such as fluorinated hydrocarbon or nitrogen.
Vehicles (Solvents Or Carriers) Solids Oral Medications Injections Semisolid
Solid Forms Of Vehicles Starch Sucrose Talc Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Resin
Oral Medications Of Vehicles Waters (Peppermint Water) Syrup Elixir
Injections Of Vehicles Sterile Water Sterile Saline Propylene Glycol Polyethylene Glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80)
Semisolid Forms Of Vehicles Paraffin Oil & Wax Bees Wax Vaseline
Factors Affecting Selection Of The Route Of Administration Therapeutic Factors Drug Factors
Therapeutic Factors Onset & duration of action Site of action Adverse reactions
Drug Factors Irritation Solubility pH
Routes Of Administration Local Systemic
Local Routes Of Administration Skin Nasal Conjunctival Urethral & Bladder Vaginal Rectal Mammary Sublingual GI Tract Otic Epidural Intraspinal Intrasynovial (Intra-Articular) Intramedullary (Into Bone Marrow)
Systemic Routes Of Administration Oral (Per Os, Enteral) Parenteral or by injection (Intravenous, IV; Subcutaneous, SQ; Intramuscular, IM; Intraperitoneal, IP) Inhalation (gases, vapors, aerosol)
Advantages To Oral Administration Safe Convenient in some animals Economical No problem of infection
Disadvantages To Oral Administration Inactivation of some drugs by gastric acidity, digestive enzymes or rumen microflora The presence of food may affect absorption The presence of drug may affect absorption Activity of the GI tract affects absorption
Disadvantages To Oral Administration Irritant drugs may cause vomiting and diarrhea Onset of action is slow Unpalatability of some drugs
Advantages To Intravenous Administration Accurate Fast onset of action Irritating, hypertonic, acidic or basic drugs can be given Large volumes can be given
Disadvantages to Intravenous Administration Dangerous
Advantages To Intramuscular Administration Rapid absorption Duration of action is longer than intravenous Suspensions can be injected
Disadvantages To Intramuscular Administration Irritant, hypertonic, acidic or basic drugs may cause tissue damage
Advantages To Subcutaneous Administration Slow absorption but constant Longer duration of action
Disadvantages To Subcutaneous Administration Slow onset Irritating drugs can not be used
Metrology The study of weights & measures used in prescription writing. Preferable to use the metric system, but the apothecary system is sometimes used.
Metric System Weights 1kg = 1000g 1g = 1000mg 1mg = 1000ug 1ug = 1000ng
Metric System Volumes 1L = 1000mL 1mL = 1000uL
The Apothecaries' System Weights 1 ounce = 8 drams 1 dram = 60 grains 1 grain = 65mg
The Apothecaries' System Volume 1 pint = 16 fluid ounces 1 fluid ounce = 8 fluid drams 1 fluid dram = 60 minims
Approximate Common Conversions 1 gallon = 4 liters 1 liter = 1 quart = 2 pints 1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds 1 ounce = 30 grams 1 fluid ounce = 20 millimeters 1 grain = 65 milligrams 1mL = 1cc
Posology The study of doses
Dose The amount of drug given to an animal to give a certain effect
Dosage The amount of drug per the unit body weight (kilogram or pound) & is usually in mg/kg or mg/lb
Types Of Doses Therapeutic (Effective) Dose Toxic Dose Lethal Dose
Minimal Therapeutic Dose Smallest amount that has a therapeutic effect
Maximal Therapeutic Dose Largest amount that can be tolerated without producing toxic effects
Therapeutic Dose Optimal dose, which lies some place between the minimal and maximal therapeutic dose
The Effective Dose Fifty (ED50) Effective dose in 50% of the animals Median effective dose
The Toxic Dose Amount that produces undesirable clinical, hematological, biochemical or pathological alterations
The Lethal Dose Dose that causes death
The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) Dose that causes death in 50% of the animals Median lethal dose
Evaluation Of Relative Safety Of Drugs The therapeutic index The standard safety margin
The Therapeutic Index Ratio between the LD50/ED50 The larger the therapeutic index, the wider the margin of safety of a drug
The Standard Safety Margin (SSM 100%) Expresses the precentage dose increase between ED99 and LD1 LD1/ED99 is called the certain safety factor The wider the margin between ED99 and LD1 for a drug, the safer the drug The standard safety margin is more accurate than the therapeutic index
Abbreviations Names of drugs should not be abbreviated. Chemical formulas must not be used in prescription writing. Abbreviations of Latin words are commonly used in prescription writing because they may save time and are readily understood by the pharmacist.
Created by: 23114859