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Astronomy LS 1

LS1 Study Guide

Meteor An object that enters earth’s atmosphere w/ such speed that it glows
Meteoroid A small solar system body that has the potential to become a meteor.
Meteorite An object that enters earths atmosphere at a high speed & reaches the ground w/out burning up.
What happens as a meteor enters Earth’s atmosphere? When a meteor enters the earth’s atmosphere it usually burns up and doesn’t drill into the ground causing craters. (Since the moon doesn’t have an atmosphere, it gets hit with meteors very often).
Crater A rounded depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or solid body.
Parts of crater The depth, wall, floor, ejecta, rim, ray, and diameter.
How a crater is formed It’s formed when a meteorite breaches through the earth’s atmosphere and plunges into the ground, and after awhile the meteorite itself will break down and disappear completely due to erosion and weathering.
Variables that affect the size & shape of a crater: The Angle, Speed & Size.
How do the variables affect the crater? The bigger the size of the meteor, and the angle it hits along with its speed have a bigger impact on the ground causing a larger crater.
Differences between Earth & Moon Craters: Earth craters are younger than moon craters and might be carried away from erosion and will never be seen. Moon craters will stay on the moon for awhile because the moon doesn’t have erosion.
Volcanic A bowl shaped depression that forms around the opening of a volcano.
Impact- Is formed when an object strikes a larger body.
Meteor Crater in AZ: •Known as “The Barringer Meteorite Crater” •Located in the middle of an Arizona desert. •Struck earth 50,000 years ago during the ice age. •Killed large animals & plants. •Cause hurricane winds. •Most of the meteorite was destroyed in the explosion
Weathering A process in which rocks on earth’s surface are broken down into smaller parts
Erosion A process in which rocks on earth’s surface are worn down by & carried away by wind or water.
Agents of erosion Air, wind, rain, running water, freezing, thawing.
Asteroids A rock or metallic solar system body that revolves around the sun between 10m & 500m in diameter.
Asteroid belt A region of the solar system between Mars & Jupiter in which most asteroids are located
Comets A small icy solar system body that revolves around the sun & forms a tail as it gets closer to the sun.
Dwarf planets A round solar system body that is smaller than a planet.
Astrogeology The study of rocks and minerals in space.
How does the age of the surfaces of the moon & earth differ? Since the moon has an older surface, things (like footprints) will stay longer. Since the earth has a younger surface things (like footprints will not stay for long).
Relationship between pressure of gas & temperature of gas. As the pressure of a gas is increased the temperature gets hotter.
What effects the size & shape of an impact crater? Mass, speed & atmosphere
An object that collided with the surface of the moon at a low angle will make an impact crater in which shape? Oval shape
Objects that are moving at a high speed will make an impact crater that’s ... Deep
Why are there more craters on the moon than on earth? Because of atmosphere, weathering, erosion, and no water
As the pressure of a gas is increased what happens to the temperature? It gets hotter.
What is the difference between weathering & erosion? Weathering - a process in which rocks on earth’s surface are broken down into smaller parts. Erosion - a process in which rocks on earth’s surface are worn down by & carried away by wind or water.
Compare earth’s surface to the moon’s surface The earth’s surface changes more often than the moon’s because of erosion & weathering. The moon’s surface is older than the earths surface.
What are astroids & comets mainly made of? Astroids are made of rock & metal, Comets are made of ice, rock, & dust.
Why are the moon’s craters different than the earth’s craters? Since the moon doesn’t have weathering, erosion, or an atmosphere, there are more craters on the moon’s surface that vary greatly in size & depth. And since Earth does have weathering, erosion, atmosphere and water, we have less craters.
Created by: Alex Jackson