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JSK Board Stk-2

QuestionAnswer
Cleft Lip Maxillary prominence fail to properly fuse with intermaxillary segment during early embryoic development.
Cleft Pallet Palatine shelves of maxillary promience fail to properly fuse with one another
Choanal Atresia Bone Maldevelopment in the development of fetus, obstruction of one or both nasal passages
Kallmann's Syndrome Absence of GnRH secretory neuron from hypothalamus. Anosmia
FSH Stimulate what in male Seminiferous tubules and Spermatogenesis. Intern Seminiferous tubule produce inhibin to pituitary FSH secretion
LH Stimulate what in male Interstitial leydig cells to produce testosterone
Thionamide (Methimazole and propylthiouraci) antithyroid by decreaing formation of thyroid hormon via inhibition of the ezyme thyroid peroxidase. Propylthiouracil decrease conversion of T4 to T3
Bulimia Nervosa Eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain, At least twice a week for 3 months.
Body dysmorphic disorder Intense preoccupation with an imagined bodily defect
Anorexia nervosa Bodyweight less than 85% of ideal.
Hepatitis E Un enveloped, ssRNA, fecal oral route, affects young to middle aged adults. Transaminases and IgM and anti-HEV titers rise in association with clincial illness. High mortality rate observed in infected pregnant women.
Hemachromatosis Mutation of HFE, abnormally high intestinal absorption. Hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis are complecations
Porcelain Gallbladder Bluish, Brittle, calcium-laden gallbaldder wall in patients with chronic cholecystitis. 11-33% eventually gests gallbladder carcinoma
Increased frequency of PRPP synthetase Gout Attack,, due to increased production of purine.
Colchicine Acute management of gouty arthritis by reducing neutrophil chemotaxis,
Hormones that exert their effects through cAMP TSH, PTH, glucagon, beta-adrenergic receptor via Gs and Protein Kinase A
cellular changes that exert their effects through cGMP Protein Kinase G, rlxation of smooth muscle, platelet activation, sperm metabolism, and cell division.activated by cGMP phosphodiesterase.
an example of a hormone that uses tyrosin kinase domain Insulin
Theophline Used in Bronchial asthma. Inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase leads prologation of the action of cyclic AMP
Hormones that uses JAK-STAT pathway Growth Hormone, Erythropoietin, nterferons
Hepatocellular carcino Associated with HBV, elevation of alphafetoprotein
HBsAg Diagnostic marker for HBV infection. HBsAg goes a way as anti-HBsAg antibody is formed
HbseAg HBV marker, indicates high level of infectivity
HBcAg Indication of recent or acute infection by HBV
Intrinsic (mitochondrial pathway) Replacing survival agen Bcl to pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bak, Bax, Bim, through cytochrome c
Extrinsic (death receptor pathway) Uses TNFR1, and Fas (CD95), Once Fas binds to ligand becomes FADD, briniing in mutiple caspases protein together.
Lipoxygenase Synthesis of Leukotriene
C. Difficile Florishes when normal flora goes away, produces enterotoxin(diarrhea), exotoxin B, causes colonic epithelial cell necrosis, and stimulation of fibrin deposition.
Traveler's Diarrhea ETEC, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella, Giardia can also be responsible.
Side effect of Proton pump inhibitors Loose stools
Vacuum sealed can and its associated organism C. Botulinum.
ERB-B2 gens expressed in AKA Her-2/Neu, Expressed in 1/3 of breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of ovary, stomach, lung, and salivary glands. Signs of aggressiveness
Anti Her-2 antibody Trastuzumab
N-myc associated tumer Neuroblastoma and small cell carcinoma of the lung
sis proto-oncogenes associated with Overexpression of astrocytomas and osteosarcomas
Bcl-2 Observed in follicular lymphomas
Symptoms of URI Fever, Rhinitis, Pharyngitis
Etiology of Viral Croup Ranked by Commonality Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza Virus, Adenovirus
Caliciviruses (Hepattis E and Norwalk Virus) responsible for viral gastroenteritis
Croup is? laryngotracheobronchitis. Most common: Parainfluenza virus type 1.
Impaired humoral immunity P. Aeruginosa, produces Exotoxin A (protein synthesis inhibition), Elastase (derades elastin), Phospholipase C (degrades cellular membranes), and pyocyanin generates reactive oxygen species
Strep Pyogenes associated infections' Cutaneous infections, impetigo, erysipelas, and abcess.
COX-2 Involved in prostacyclin (PGI2)
M-Protein is attached to Streptococcal cell wall
C1q deposit found in MPGN type 1: Deposits are in subendothelial cells
IgE deposits in capillary wall with what disease Lupus nephritis,
PostStrep Glomeruonephritis deposit proteins IgG,IgM,C3 in mesangium and basement membraine, starry sky appearance
Berry aneurysm associated with Coarctation of the aorta
The loop diuretics furosemide, bumetanide, torsemide, ethacrynic acid), act at the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
Potassium Sparing diuretic Spironolactone, amiloride, and triamterene, acts on Collecting duct
What structure should be concerned when midshaft of the humerus is fractured? Radial nerve and deep brachial nerve
Drugs that are metabolized by P450 Warfarin, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, phenytoin, isoniazid, rifampin, oral hypoglycemics.
P450 Inducer Phenytoin, Penobarbital, Isoniazid, Rifampin, Carbamazepin
Terbinafine Antifungal accumulate in skin and nail, used to treat dermatophytoses.
Gemfibrozil and fenofibrate 1st line treatment for hypertriglyceridemia. Reduce triglyceride by reducing hepatic triglyceride production.
Ezetimibe intestinal absorption of cholesterol from diet and bile acid. 20-30% reduction in serum LDL. Most effective at reducing serum triglyceries and increaing HDL.
Cholestyramine Bile acid binding resin reduce LDL, interfere cholesterol syn thesis by interfering enterohepatic circulation, increase triglyceride level as a result
Femoral hernia Herniate through femoral canal. Lateral to pubic tubercle, medial to femoral vain. Prone to incarceration --> Strangulation
Inferior epigastric vessel location Lateral to direct inguinal hernia, medially to indirect inguinal hernia. Lateral border of hasselbach triangle
Vitamin A toxicity hepatic injury --> Cirrhosis, Acute: singl high dose of vitamn A: Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, blurred vision. Chronic: Alopecia,dry skin, hyperlipidemia, Papilledema
Thiamine deficiney Adult beriberi, wernicke-Korsakoff
Niacin deficiency Dementia, dermatitis, and diarhea
Vit B12 deficiency Associated with pernicious anemia, lemon colored, broad-based gait.
Vit B2 Riboflavin Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermatotitis, corneal vascularization
Large dose of Vit E. Hemorrhagic stroke in adult
Holosystolic murmurs Assoc. tricuspid regurg. Mitral regurg, ventricular septal defect.
Elevated wedge pressure means? Cardiogenic caue of pulmonary edema. Ie. pulmonary venous hypertensiokn
Created by: jskim