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Chemistry Module 15

Key Terms and Concepts from the Module

Chemical Equilibrium The point at which both the forward and reverse reactions in a chemical equation have equal reaction rates: When this occurs, the amounts of each substance in the chemical reaction will not change, despite the fact that both reactions still proceed.
Equilibrium Constant K = Products/Reactants with the Stochiometric Coefficients as superscripts
When K is large, the equilibrium is weighted toward the products side of the equation
When K is small, the equilibrium is weighted toward the reactants side of the equation
When K is near unity, the equilibrium is balanced between reactants and products
When a solid appears in a chemical equilibrium it is not included in Equation (15.2)
When a liquid appears in a chemical equation we do not include it in Equation (15.2). This applies only to the liquid phase; it does not apply to the aqueous phase.
When a stress (such as a change in concentration, pressure, or temperature) is applied to an equilibrium the reaction will shift in a way that relieves the stress and restores equilibrium
Le Chatelier's principle ignores solids and liquids as a source of stress to the equilibrium
When an equilibrium is subjected to an increase in pressure it will shift away from the side with the largest number of gas molecules
If pressure decreases the equilibrium will shift toward the side with the largest number of gas molecules
If there are no gases in the equation or if the number of gas molecules are the same on both sides nothing will happen
When temperature is raised, an equilibrium will shift away from the side of the equation that contains energy
When temperature is lowered, the reaction will shift toward the side that contains energy
acid ionization reactions The reaction in which an H + separates from an acid molecule so that it can be donated in another reaction
acid ionization constant The equilibrium constant for an acid's ionization reaction
If the ionization constant of an acid is large the acid is considered a strong acid
If the ionization constant is not large we call it a weak acid
In general, the larger the ionization constant the stronger the acid
base ionization reaction combined with water and accepts H+
Solutions with pH 0 - 1.9 are considered strongly acidic
solutions with pH 2 - 6.9 are considered weakly acidic
solutions with pH 7.1 - 12 are considered weakly basic
solutions with pH 12.1 - 14 are considered strongly basic
A pH of 7 indicates a neutral solution
Created by: 100003505075778