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EP Final Review 2

Biomes described by vegetation, vegetation determined by temperature and precipitation, north to south=tundra, grassland, tropical rain forest
Savanna grazing animals
Grasslands threatened by erosion, rich soil
Tropical Rain Forest animals are specialized to avoid competition, buttresses, vines, large flat leaves in understory, eagles, bats, and snakes in emergent layer, threatened by deforestation
Deserts dry side of mountain ranges
Tundra permafrost, fragile
Taiga coniferous forest, shape accumulates snow to insulate trees
Chaparral fire is beneficial, plants resprout from small amounts of vegetation, coastal and Meditarranean
Temperate Deciduous Forest squirrels, bears, deer eat nuts, berries, and leaves
Temperate Rain Forest high humidity, mosses, lichens, ferns, large evergreens, moderate temps
Latitude distance north or south of equator
Estuaries fresh and marine water, nutrients from rivers and oceans, many pollutants
Coastal pollution industrial waste and sewage
Swamps flat, poorly drained land, woody shrubs and water loving trees
Marine most organisms in shallow coastal waters, threats=runoff, discharge, overfishing, nets, sewage, algal blooms
Rivers widen, slow, and warm as the move to flatter ground
Lakes have regions with little sunlight
Wetlands remove water pollutants, plentiful nutrients, perceived as disease infested, diverse, marshes, swamps
Ponds organisms depend on sunlight, temperature, nutrients
Littoral diverse and abundant life
Benthic cool dark water
Nekton swims freely
Benthos attached to a surface
Open ocean organisms depend on nutrients
Coral reefs formed by secretion of calcium carbonate, threatened by oil spills, pesticides, sewage
Salt marshes/ mangrove swamps provide habitats, found along coast, threatened by development, high salt content
Population Density number of individuals per unit area
Parasite roundworm, ticks, mistletoe, cause host to be more vulnerable
Predator=prey lynx and hare, predator kills prey
Random dispersion solitary organisms
Density independent deaths storms
Reproductive potential bacteria have high potential, increase potential by reproducing earlier in life
Ants and acacia trees mutualism
Niche organisms role in the environment
Carrying capacity determined by supply of the most limited resource
Commensalism symbiosis where one benefits, the other is unharmed
Mutualism symbiosis where both organisms benefit
Parasitism symbiosis where one organism benefits and the other is harmed
Population number of individuals in an area
Habitat location an organism lives
Competition can occur between populations, within a population, between overlapping niches
Biotic potential maximum number of offspring each individual can produce
Surface water less than 1% of all of Earth’s water
Fresh water most is in the north and south poles
Water treatment chlorine kills bacteria
Water management diverts water to where it is needed
Conservation low flow showerheads, allows more freshwater to use
Point source easily identified source of pollution
Nonpoint source runoff
Groundwater difficult to clean because it is deep, pollutants cling, recycling takes a long time
Ocean pollution pollutants come from land
1990 Oil pollution act double hulled tankers
Watershed largest in US is Mississippi River
Phosphates begin process that kills fish
Water use conflicts upstream country builds a dam
Dams decreased construction because of environmental concerns, create energy, both sides of the dam change
Aquifers hard to purify
Water pollution effects multiply through food chain
Thermal pollution and eutrophication decrease dissolved oxygen
Climate long term conditions
Atmosphere warm air rises and cold air sinks
Carbon Dioxide since 1958 higher high amounts and higher low amounts
Latitude influences climate due to how much sun hits the earth
Ozone layer polar regions, seasonal, years to reverse, chlorine is released from clouds in the spring
CFC’s 10 to 20 years to reach stratosphere
Greenhouse gases trap heat
Ultra violet radiation damage genetic material
Created by: evroman