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Bones function, structure, etc.

Bones: Function (5) Support, Protect, Movement, Storage of fat and calcium, Hematopoiesis.
Bone Markings Tip: Terms Beginning With T Projections.
Bone Markings Tip: Terms Beginning With F (except facet) Depressions.
Bones: Classification 206 bones. Classified by tissue type and shape.
Compact Osseous Tissue Dense and looks smooth.
Spongy Osseous Tissue Composed of needlelike pieces and has lots of open space.
Long Bones Limbs, Longer than wider, compact bone.
Short Bones Sesamoid, wrist, ankle, patella. Cube-shaped and spongy.
Irregular Bones Vertebrae, hips. Whatever doesn't fit into the other categories.
Long Bone: Composed of Epiphysis.
Epiphysis The ends of the bone.
Epiphysis: Composed of Spongy bone.
Articular Cartilage Covers the epiphysis. Provides slippery surface and friction free movement.
Articular Cartilage: Composed of Hyaline Cartilage.
Epiphyseal Line Remnant of the epiphyseal plate from childhood where lengthwise growth of bones happened.
Diaphysis Middle of the bone composed of compact bone.
Periosteum Covers the diaphysis.
Sharpey's Fibres Secure the periosteum to the bone.
Nutrient Arteries Provide blood to the tissue.
Medullary Cavity Storage of fat tissue in adults: "yellow marrow". In infants, red blood cells: "red marrow".
Osteocytes: Location Cavities called lacunae.
Lacunae: Arranged in Concentric circles called lamella.
Centre of Lamella Haversian canal.
Canaliculi Tiny canals that connect bone cells to the nutrient supply and allow bones to heal quickly.
Calcium Salts Give bones hardness and compression resistance.
Collagen Fibres Provide flexibility and strength.
Ossification Process of bone growth.
Osteoblasts Convert hyaline cartilage to bone tissue in fetus.
Change After Growth #1 Pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton.
Bedridden People Less bone mass.
Body Builders Bones are thick where muscles attach.
Change After Growth #2 Calcium levels in blood.
Osteoclasts When calcium is needed osteoclast break down the bone to release calcium in the blood. When calcium is high, it is deposited back on to the bones.
Open or Compound Break Break that penetrates the skin.
Closed or Simple Break Clean break.
Comminuted Break Bone breaks into fragments.
Compression Break Bone is crushed.
Depression Break Bone is pressed inward (skull).
Spiral Break Ragged break, occurs from twisting.
Impacted Break Broken bone ends are forced into each other.
Greenstick Break Incomplete break.
Hairline Break Very small crack in the bone "stress fracture".
Rickets Disease of children where bones fail to calcify. Bones show a "bowing". Lack of calcium or vitamin D.
Reduction Realignment of broken bone ends. Manually moving bones, or through surgery.
Bone Healing Time 6-8 Weeks. Takes longer for older people because of low blood circulation.
Bone Repair Step 1 Hematoma Forms: Blood fills breakage area and swelling occurs.
Bone Repair Step 2 Fibrocartilage forms between the break and new blood vessels fill the gap.
Bone Repair Step 3 A bony callus starts to form by osteoblasts and replaces the fibrocartilage.
Bone Repair Step 4 Over the next few months, the bony callus remodels itself to form a more sturdy patch on the fracture site.
Tuberosity Large, rounded projection; may be roughened.
Condyle Rounded articular projection.
Articulate (Articulation) Joint where two bones meet.
Sinus Cavity withing bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane.
Epicondyle Raised area on or above a condyle.
Process Any bone prominence.
Crest Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent.
Trochanter Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (the only examples are on femur).
Foramen Round or oval opening through a bone.
Facet Smooth, nearly flat articular surface.
Fossa Shallow, basin-like depression in bone, often serving as an articular surface.
Meatus Canal-like passageway.
Parts of Skeleton (2) Axial, Appendicular.
Axial Skull, Thoracic Cage, Vertebral Column.
Appendicular Limbs, Pectoral Girdle, Pelvic Girdle.
Created by: UtauxIkuto