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Urinary Elimination


How much cardiac output circulates through the kidneys per minute 20-25% Approx.
The functional unit of the kidney Nephron
Is the initial site of filtration of the blood and the beginning of urine formation Glomerulus
The pressure of large proteins in the urine and is a sign of glomerular injury Proteinuria
How much filtrate does the glomerulus filter per minute 125ml/min
What is the average adult urine output 1500-1600ml/day
A urine output less than what, indicates possible renal alterations <30ml/hr
Hormone produced by the kidneys and functions with in the bone marrow to stimulate RBC production, and maturation, and prolongs life of mature RBC's Erythropoietin
Functions of RAAS Renin released by juxtaglomerular cells, l/t angiotensinogen (liver), l/t angiotensin I converts into Angiotensin II in the lungs, l/t Aldesterone from renal cortex.
Voiding, peeing, urinating etc. Micturition
How long is the urethra in women 1.5-2.5 inch (4-6.5cm)
How long is the urethra in men 8inch (20cm)
How much fluid does the bladder hold 600ml
Allowing urination to occur without sensation of the need to void Reflex incontinence
An increase in nitrogenous wastes in the blood, marked fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, n/v, headache, come, and convulsions Uremic Syndrome
An indirect method of cleansing the blood of waste products using osmosis and diffusion with the peritoneum functioning as a semipermeable membrane Peritoneal Dialysis
Uses a machine equipped with a semipermeable filtering membrane (artificial kidney) that removes accumulation waste products and excess fluids from the blood Hemodialysis
An excessive output of urine Polyuria
A urine output that is decreased despite normal intake Oliguria
Zero urine production Anuria
Inhibits the release of ADH Alcohol
Ingestion of Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) colors urine Orange-Rust
Ingestion of Amitriptyline colors urine Green-Blue
Ingestion of Levadopa colors urine Brown-Black
Direct visualization of urinary structures Cystoscopy
Artificial opening on the abdomen to drain urine Stoma
Most common causiative pathogen, responsible for 75-95% of uncomplicated UTI's Escherichia Coli
Pain or burning during urination Dysuria
An irritated bladder causes a frequent and urgent sensation of the need to void Cystitis
Blood-tinged urine Hematuria
When infection spreads to the upper urinary tract Pyelonephritis
This is an incontinent urinary diversion, (wears pouch) Ileal conduit (Incontinent Urinary Diversion)
The portion of the ileum connected to the abdominal wall acts as a nipple, requiring intermittent catheterization for emptying Continent Urinary Diversion
Tube placed directly into the renal pelvis Nephrostomy
Development of urinary control in childbirth 2-3yrs Full control in 4-5yrs
Two types of incontinence Urgency and Stress Incontinence
The average number most people void 5 or more times/day
Discourages bacterial adherence to the bladder wall Cranberry Juice
Sound resulting from turbulent blood flow through a narrowed artery Bruit
An output of urine less than what, is cause for concern <30ml in more than 2hrs
What is considered Polyruria 2000-2500ml/day
High concentrations of bilirubin cause what color urine Dark Amber Color
What urine color occurs from acetone or acetoacetic acid Sweet or fruity odor
What odor for urine that is stagnant Ammonia Odor
What determines the method of collecting urine Type of test
Type of urine collection used for C Clean voided/ Midstream and sterile specimen.
Type of urine collection used for routine urinalysis Random
Type of urine collection for measuring adrenocortical steroids, or hormones, creatinine clearance, or protein quantity test Timed Urine Specimens
Normal urine pH 4.6-8.0
Normal urine Protein None or up to 8mg/100ml
Normal Urine Specific Gravity 1.005-1.030
What are 2 diagnostic testes for urinary problems Endoscopy-Cystoscopy and Arteriogram (Angiography)
Intervention to avoid nocturia Avoid fluids 2hrs before bedtime
What is Recommended fluid intake for a healthy adult 2000-2500ml/day
What is the Average fluid intake for a healthy adult 1200-1500ml/day
Drugs that block the muscarinic receptors suppress bladder contractions and reduce incontinence caused by the bladder Solifenacin (Vesicare) and Oxybutynin Chloride (Ditropan)
Cholinergic drugs that increase contraction of the bladder and improve emptying Bethanechol (Urecholine)
The dribbling or overflow incontinence seen in men with prostatic enlargement can be treated with this Alpha1- Andrenergic Blocker Tamsulosin (Flomax)
Involuntary leakage of urine during increased abdominal pressure in the absence of bladder muscle contraction (coughing, sneezing, laughing) Stress Incontinence
Loss of urine caused by factors outside the urinary tract that interfere with the ability to respond in a socially appropriate way to the urge to void Functional Incontinence
Involuntary passage of urine after a strong sense of urgency to void Urge Incontinence
Combination of urge urinary incontinence and stress urinary incontinence s/s Mixed Incontinence
Involuntary loss of urine at intervals without sensation of urge to void Reflex Incontinence
These types of catheters are suitable only for intermittent use due to their inflexibility Plastic Catheters
These types of catheters are recommended for use up to 3weeks, be aware of allergies Latex Catheters
These types of catheters are best suited for long term use (2-3 months) because of less encrustation at the urethral meatus Pure silicone or Teflon catheters
How many times do you provide perineal care for an indwelling catheter At least 3x/day
This method is a specific program for clients with urge urinary incontinence r/t overactive bladder (supress urination) Bladder Retraining
Clients who have stress or urge urinary incontinence may benefit from this exercise PFE's or Kegel Exercises
Created by: BOjangles1006