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pt with infection

pathology any microorganism capable of producing disease
Communicable infection transmitted from person to person
Pathogenicity the ability to cause disease
Virulence the degree of communicability
Normal Flora characteristic bacteria of a body location; it often competes with other microorganisms to prevent infection
Colonization the microorganisms present in tissue but not yet causing symptomatic disease
Surveilance The tracking and reporting of infections
Chain of infection Reservoirs: animals, humans, medical equiptment. Toxins: protein from bacteria to affect at a distance. Exotoxin: bacteria into environment; tetanus. Endotoxin: produced in bacteria & released only with cell lysis; typhoid. Host defenses: susceptibility
Immunity resistance to infection. Passive: short duration, naturally by placental transfer or artificially by injection of antibodies Active: lasts for years and occurs naturally by infection or artificially by stimulation of immune defenses
portal of entry/exit respiratory, GI, genitourinary, skin/mucous, bloodstream
Mode of transmission Contact: by direct or indirect contact Droplet: influenza Airborne: tuberculosis Contaminated food or water Vector-Borne: insects, Lyme disease
infection control Health care- associated infection is acquired in the inpatient setting; not present at admission Endogeneous infection is from a patient’s flora Exogenous infection is from outside the patient, often the hands of health care workers
Methods of infection control Hand hygiene and PPE Adequate staffing, sterilization, disinfection, patient placement, patient transportation
CDC and prevention Standard precautions: respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette. Safe injection practices
Transmission-based precautions Airborne: room with negative air flow, use rebreather mask Droplet: droplets can travel 3ft not suspended for long periods Contact: gloves, when in contact with body fluid
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Not responding to antibiotics- best prevention is health teaching Vancomycin and linezolid VRE: can live in intestinal tract, if out of digestive system. It can be dangerous
Problems from inadequate antimicrobial therapy Noncompliance, legal sanctions that compel a pt to complete treatment, such as in TB. Septicemia and Septic shock. Sepsis: give NS 5%, will have thread HR, decreased BP
Collaborative care History, physical assessment and clinical manifestations. Psychosocial assessment. Laboratory assessment including: culture antibiotic sensitivity testing, complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serologic testing, imaging assessment
Created by: smarti13