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reason for leveling the measurement process to determine height hight on maps ensures construction at correct gradient enables horizontal distance to be calaculate
principles of leveling uesd to measuer the difference in height between two points if the hight of one point is known the the hight of another can be determined
level line one that is at a constant height- realitive to the mean sea level and because it follows the mean surface it must be curved itself
Datum a level line is chosen to which the elevation of all points are related in the uk chosen datum is msl at newlyn cornwall
Horizontal line line tangential to the level line at any particular point. it is perpendicular to the direction of gravity at any point
line of colimation the line of site of the instrument
reduced level height of a point realitive to the chosen datum
Benchmarks reference marks or points, the reduced level of which have been accurately determined by levelling
Ordnance Bench Marks (OBM) established on Ordnance from datum at Newlyn, Cornwall
Temporary Bench Marks set up on stable points near construction sites where no OBM is found
collimation error due to the line of sight not being horizontal
instrument set up midway between two points due to curvature of the earth
Created by: anthonyokereke