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pnuemonia/pleural effusion/aspiration pneumonia/COPD

collapsed airless alveoli, caused by airway obstruction, most often from retained secretions, risk factors include intubation, narcotics, rib fractures, bedrest, immobility. atelectasis
insertion of needle into pleural space to remove excess plueral fluid, obtain specimen, instill meds thoracentesis
acute inflammation of lung parenchyma caused by infection, microbes enter the normally sterile lower resp system, infection causes alveoli to become fluid or pus-filled, inflamed pneumonia
onset is in community or during first 2 days of hospitalization, usually 10-14 day antibiotic community acquired pneumonia
occuring 48 hrs or longer after hospital admission, more serious hospital acquired pneumonia
progressive dyspnea, dec chest wall movement affected, pleuritic pain, absent or decrease breath sounds affected side pleural effusion
results from abnormal entry of secretions or suibstances into lower airway Risk Factors include dec level of consciousness, feeding tube, N & V, CVA, dysphagia, and artificial airway (trach or endotrach tube) aspiration pneumonia
presence of chronic production cough for 3 months in each of 2 consecutive years, excess mucous production and airway obstruction, bronchial walls thickened, narrowing chronic bronchitis
abnormal permanent enlargement of the air spaces to the terminal bronchioles, hyperinflation of the alveoli, destruction of the alveolar walls & pulmonary capillary beds, decreased ability to oxygenate blood emphysema
hypertrophy of the right ventricle resulting from pulmomary hypertension, complication of COPD. symp: wheezing, fatigue, productive cough, weakness, crackles @ bases, JVD, wt gain, can lead to R sided heart failure if untx cor pulmonale
secondary to hypoxia, bodys attempt at compensation, r/t dialationand failure of the right ventricle, wheezing, fatigue, productive cough, weakness, crackles @ bases complication of COPD. Lack of 02 causes erythopoiesis, too mnay RBC's polycythemia
Persistent cough, sputum production, dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest pain, wheezes are all signs of a respiratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. disorder
_ _ _'s are done in respiratory therapy department, airflow measured with spirometer, measures lung volumes, breathing mechanics, diffusion, gas exchange with emphasis on exhalation, & determines extent of dysfunction. PFT pulmonary function tests
To improve airway _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ encourage hydration, humidification, coughing techniques, chest physiotherapy, position changes, o2 therapy. clearance
to prevent _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, elevate HOB, turn pt to side when vomiting, prevent stimulation of gag reflex, assessment of proper insertion of feeding tube, rehab therapy for swallowing. aspiration
To diagnose _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you could used CXR, CT scan, or thoracentesis pleural effusion
A collapsed lung is also known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pneumothorax
progressive airflow limitation, not fully reversible, preventable and treatable, abnormal inflammatory response of lungs to noxious particles of gases COPD
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the most common risk factor for COPD. Accounts for 80-90% deaths of COPD. Most preventable cause of premature death. smoking
Long term low flow 02, loop diuretic, Restrict Na, bronchodilators, vasodilators are the Tx for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cor pulmonale
#1 nursing diagnosis for COPD pts is ? impaired gas exchange
To imporve _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, bronchodilaotrs, corticosteriods, huff coughing, chest PT, pursed lip breathing, and 02 thearpy will help. gas exchange
To improve _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, focus of imporving ADL's, excercise training, pacing of activities, and collaborative approach. activity tolerance
Reversible airflow obstruction is _ _ _ _ _ _ ? asthma
chronic inflam disorder of airways results from inflammation or airway hyperresponsiveness. Affects the bronchioles not alveoli. Asthma
Dyspnea, chest tightness, coughing, wheezing, mucous production, accessory muscles, and poor 02 sat % Asthma
These are done before and after bronchdilator use. If they improve it is diagnostic to asthma. PFT's pulmonary function tests
This type of medication will relax airway smooth muscle, improves ventilation, reduces breathlessness, PRN or scheduled dosing. Bronchodilators
inhaled steroid, sweet taste as sweetner added so you know you got the med, sharp quick breath to activate powder, follow with slow deep inspiration. Benefit is immediate absorption Diskus: Advair
Oral inhalation med, Tx of COPD ONLY, inhibits M3 receptors at smooth muscle. Result is bronchodilation with daily dose. Spiriva Handihaler
Used for anti-inflamm, S/E elevated blood glucose, fluid retention, skin changes, GI upset, and delayed wound healing. long term effects include buffalo hump, moon face, thinning of skin, loss of muscle mass, diabetes, and osteoporosis Corticosteriods
1st inhaler med given is Albuterol. 2nd in long acting bronchodilator like Atrovent. 3rd is steroid like Advair Order of Inhaler Medications
Created by: rebecca6890