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HTN/CAD/angina/heart failure

Reduced blood flow to the heart causes _ _ _ _ _ _. Angina
lower extremities go thru IVC-->R atrium-Upper extremities go thru SVC-->R atrium, thru tricuspid valve-->R ventricle, thru pulmonic valve, up thru p.arteries--> lungs,come back via p.veins-->L atrium thru mitral valve--> L ventricle, then up thru aorta normal blood flow of heart
When vein branches off to get blood other places. Seen in the elderly, the reason a 20 year old wont survive a heart attack but a 60 year old probably will. Collateral ciculation
Amount of blood ejected thru w each heart beat stroke volume
Amount of blood pumped by ventricles in one minute cardiac output
nitro _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the blood vessels and makes a higher stroke volume. dilates
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the degree of stretching of myocardial muscle length at the end of diastole (filling) PRIOR to contraction. Low amount can be caused by gun shot or stabbing Tx give fluid bolus Preload
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ is resistance the ventricles must overcome to eject blood into systemic ciculation Afterload
Arrhythmia's = lacking _ _ _ _ _ _. Apply stat. oxygen
If someone c/o chest pain whats the 1st intervention you do? ECG
creatinine kinase is elevated in muscle _ _ _ _ _ _. injury
CK-MB is 95% specific to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ tissue. It will be elevated 4-6 hours after if heart r/t cardiac
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is 100% specific to heart. If lab is anything more than <0.1 this means damage to the heart. Peak is 12 hours but its released the start of damage. troponin
Total Cholesterol range should be btwn _ _ _ and _ _ _. LDL level should be < _ _ _. HDL level should be _ _-_ _. Triglycerides should stay btwn _ _ _ & _ _ _. 140-200 <160 35-85 100-200
Low # of electrolyte _ _, will cause confusion. Low # of electrolyte _ will cause palpitations. High # of _ will cause heart problems & kidney problems. If the electrolyte _ _ is low or high it will affect muscle firing and cause dysrhythmias. Na K K Ca
_ _ _ is the marker of choice in determining cardiac vs respiratory cause of dyspnea. If the level is >100 indicate of heart failure. BNP
_ _ _ is the marker of inflammation. It can predict cardiac events. CRP
_ _ _ is amino acid. Implicated as risk for CAD. Hcy
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ shows diagram of electrical activity of <3.12 lead most diagnostic.Results can show dysrhthmias, conduction system abnormalities, lack of 02 to heart muscle (angina or MI).This is the 1st action a RN would take when a pt c/o chest pain electrocardiogram
cardiac _ _ _ _ _ test evaluates response to physical exertion, non invasive, can be exercise or med insuced stress
_ _ _ is > or equal to 140 systolically, and > or equal to 90 siastolically htn
120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic prehypertension
Prevent sodium and water reabsorption in distal tubules while PROMOTING k excretion, may need k supplement, caution with gout pt thiazide hydrochlorothiazide
depresses sodium reabsorption in loop of henle and promotes sodium and potassium excretion lasix loop
act on distal tubual inhibit reabsorption of sodium in exchange for k-usually used in combo with another K sparing spironolactone
"pril" vessels constrict less, prevent production of angiotensin II by blocking, assess for orthostatic hypotns, monitor renal function, if cough develops discontinue ace inhibitors
"ol" lower HR and Cardiac Output, symp: bradycardia, fatigue, hold if pulse <60bpm, rapid withdrawal may cause dysrhythmias beta blockers
vasodilation, lower BP and HR, interferes with flux of calcium ions entering smooth muscle (relaxes) calcium channel blockers
accumulation of deposits of lipids within walls of the arteries, can obstruct blood flow, decreases 02 to myocardium, major cause of CAD coronary atherosclerosis
central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL, insulin resistance metabolic syndrome
more LDL's and platelet growth factors thicken arterial wall forming plaque, lumen of vessel narrows, decreased blood flow and 02 to myocardium, angina or MI CAD
inhibit synthesis of cholesterol in liver, more LDL's removed from blood, moderate increase in HDL's, moderate decrease in triglycerides Statins
chest pain or discomfort that is clinical manifestation of REVERSIBLE myocardial ischemia angina
Assessment of Chest Pain: P Q R S T Preciptating factors Quality Radiation Severity Timing
_ _ _ _ _ _ angina is temporary decrease in -2 to myocardium stable
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ angina is rupture of plaque that can lead to an MI, usually at rest or minimal exertion unstable
1st line therapy for anginal symptoms, dilates coronary arteries, venous dilation leads to decreased venous return to the heart, results in 02 consumption Nitrates
inability of heart to pump enough blood to meet needs of tissues for o2 and nutrients, ventricular dysfunction, reduced exercise tolerance, diminished quality of life, shortened life expectancy heart failure
crackles, SOB, tachypnea, anxious/confused, dec pulse ox, fatigue, think "Lungs" Left-sided heart failure
dependent edema, fatigue, jugular vein distention, wt gain, ascites, anorexia, gi bloating Right-sided heart failure
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ converting enzyme inhibitors play a vital role in management of heart failure due to systolic dysfunction. angiotensin
Created by: rebecca6890