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CCACdiabetes

type 1 & 2/insulin/complications

QuestionAnswer
The process by which glycogen (stored in liver) is broken down and released into bloodstream is called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _? HINT:Gluconeogensis is newly created glucose from proteins & fats. glycogenolysis
_ _ _ _ _ cells in the pancreas secrete glycogen for digestion, _ _ _ _ cells secrete insulin, and _ _ _ _ _ cells secrete digestive enzymes. alpha beta delta
Without "the key" known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _, glucose can't get in the cells and they will eventually die. insulin
_ _ _ _ _ _ makes our bodies release epinephrine, cortisol, glucose, & growth hormone. This why we want to eliminate as many as we can. stress
_ _ (abbreviation)results from abnormal insulin production (type 1/not enough or none at all) or impaired insulin utilization (type 2/receptors resist or not enough). DM
insulin dependent-onset is rapid,acute-3 P's-usually <30yrs old-often lean body type-triggered by autoimmune or virus-all pts REQUIRE injected insulin source type 1
Remission period of type 1, can last a few months to 1 year in time, minimal insulin requirement, TEMPORARY CONDITION ONLY honeymoon
Fasting blood glucose range 100-125mg/dl, increaased risk for development of type 2, usually asymptomatic, target organ damage may be occurring. prediabetes
Onset is usually gradual, progressive, >30yrs old, runs in families, most common risk factor is obesity, can change into type 1 if left untreated. type 2
Fasting blood sugars >126 = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, 100-125 = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, <100 = _ _ _ _ _ _. diabetes prediabetes normal
Glycosylated Hgb A1C measures glucose attached to hgb, it doesn't diagnose diabetes. Low levels = decreased risk for complications. The goal is < or = to _% 7
_ _ _ _ _-acting insulin can be used as sliding scale coverage. Onset is _ _ mins, Peak is _ _-_ _ mins, Duration is _-_ hrs. HINT "-log" Rapid 15 60-90 3-4
_ _ _ _ _-acting insulin is the only type that can be given i.v. Onset is _ _hrs, Peak is _-_ hrs, Duration is _-_ hrs. "Regular" R on vial Short 1/2-1 2-3 3-6
Basal:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-acting insulin is CLOUDY, onset is _-_ hrs, _-_ _ hrs, _ _-_ _ hrs. "NPH" N on vial Intermediate 2-4 4-10 10-16
Basal:_ _ _ _-acting insulin has onset of _ hr no peak and lasts _ _ hrs. It cant be mixed with any other insulin. Long 1 24
The faster injection site for insulin is the _ _ _ _ _ _ _. can also use back of arms, thigh, buttocks abdomen
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ noturnal hypoglycemia followed by rebound hyperglycemia. caused by too much insulin. Tx give bedtime snack. somogyi
_ _ _ _ phenomenon is hypergylcemia that is present upon wakening. Peaks in adolescence bc growth hormone is released. Tx evening dose of NPH around 10pm Dawn
Insulin pumps are continuous and use two types of insulins, _ _ _ _ _ & _ _ _ _ _. rotate needle sites q 2-3 days rapid short
With infection- insulin needs may _ _ _ _ _ _ double
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride) an oral diabetic med, inc insulin secretion from pancreas, S/E wt gain & hypoglycemia, take w 1st meal sulfonylureas
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (repaglinide, nateglinide) inc insulin production and secretion from pancreas stat after a meal, take within 30 min of meal when tray is in front of you, dont take NPO, less chance of hypoglycemia meglitinides
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (metformin) is 1st line agent for type 2, reduces hepatic glucose production, hold if getting dye 24-48 hrs before & after, never give to renal patients. biguanides
(pioglitizone), most affective for insulin resistance, never give to pt with heart condition, full cardio workout b4 prescribed assess heart, peripheral edema, run liver function tests TZD's
nutritionally, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ should not be given in high quantities to diabetic pts, causes strain on kidneys, usually r high in sat fats protein
_ _ _ _glycemia is blood glucose <70. Sympt: mild=tremors, nausea, cold, clammy skin/moderate=confusion, poor coordination, lethargy, fatigue/severe=coma, death hypoglycemia
_ _ _ is most common with type 1. hyperglycemia, ketones in urine, fruit breath, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, deep shallow kussmaul breathing, low CO2 bc hyperventilating. Tx iv insulin & fluids DKA
Type 2, usually >60yrs old, blood glucose >400, more SEVERE neuro sympt HHNS
Diabetes Complications including Stroke, MI, Amputations. tight glucose control will help limit/prevent this. Macrovascular
Diabetes Complications including retinopathy (#1 reason diabetics go blind), nephropathy (#1 reason leads to ESRD), neuropathy Tx neurotin CANT BE REVERSED Microvascular
Injury to foot usually r/t broken bone no feeling though bc neuropathy in diabetics Charcot Deformity
Created by: rebecca6890