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Cardiac Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Auscultation Any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds. Three most common sounds listened to are heart, lungs, and bowel
Echocardiography Ultrasound of the heart. Calculates the efficiency of the heart. Measures the Ejection Freaction.
ECG/Stress test Electrical measurements of the activity of the heart during increased heart rate. Normally screens for coronary artery disease.
Cardiac Catheterization Placing a tube in the femoral artery and moving up into the start of the aorta. Two uses for it.
Two uses for cardiac catheterization 1) Coronary angiography- Contrast xray of blood vessels to view blockages or bleeds. Cath is used to release the dye. 2) Stent can be put in place to provide blood to dying parts of the heart.
Cardiac markers Proteins released into bloodstream from damaged heart muscle. Peak depends on how severe heart attack is
Lipid profile Used to predict the likelihood of atherosclerosis. Looks at four numbers. Total Cholesterol(diet and genetics), HDL (Exercise), LDL ( Diet), and Triglycerides (most common form of fat in diet)
Numbers of lipid profile Total cholesterol- Under 200 mg/dL HDL (Good cholesterol)- Above 60 mg/dL LDL (Bad cholesterol)- Under 100 mg/dL Triglycerides- Under 150 mg/dL
Description of congestive heart failure A decrease in cardiac output of either right or left ventricle. Which results in edema -Affects oxygen pick up or delivery. A decrease in the stroke volume or ejection freaction of the heart resulting in edema.
Possible etiologies of LCHF -High afterload on left ventricle:(Caused by hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and aortic stenosis) -Mitral or Aortic valve problems -Myocardial infarction of left ventricl
Forward effects of LCHF Tire easily, Weak, Cold and Exercise Intolerance, SOB
Compensation for forward effects of LCHF Tachycardia, polycythemia, daytime oliguria (Less bathroom visits), Increased respiratory rate.
Backup effects of LCHF All respiratory -Orthopnea: Difficulty breathing while laying in bed -Hemoptysis: Coughing up blood -Rales: Abnormal breath sounds Cough, SOB, Nocturnal dyspnea
Treatment of LCHF First part- Cardiac glycosides (Increases contraction force and also slows heart rate) Second part-Loop diuretic (Relieves edema but causes hypokalemia, a lack in blood potassium) Third part- Potassium supplement to manage side effects
Prognosis of LCHF Most times, manageable with medications. -If not, it will get worse and increase right ventricle afterload, Causing RCHF. Heart transplant will need to be considered
Alternatives to heart transplant for CHF -Remove part of ventricle to make it pump better -Elastic wrap around heart
Possible etiologies of RCHF -High afterload on right ventricle:Caused by chronic respiratory disease(COPD Emphysema, Cystic Fibrosis), pulmonary stenosis, stenosis of the pulmonary trunk or arteries.-Infarction of right ventricle-Tricuspid or Pulmonic valve failure
Forward effects of RCHF Tire easily, weak, cold and exercise intolerance, SOB
Compensation for forward effects of RCHF Tachycardia, polycythemia, daytime oliguria (Less bathroom visits), Increased respiratory rates.
Backup effects of RCHF All systemic -Edema in the feet, ankles,and abdomen, distended jugulars veins -Enlarged spleen and liver -Flushed face -Headache
Treatment of RCHF First part- Cardiac glycosides (Increases contraction force and also slows heart rate) Second part-Loop diuretic (Relieves edema but causes hypokalemia, a lack in blood potassium) Third part- Potassium supplement to manage side effects
Prognosis of RCHF Most times, manageable with medications. -If not, it will get worse and increase left ventricle afterload, causing LCHF. Heart transplant will need to be considered
AV block Occurs when SA node stops electrical signal from getting through. Can be caused by too high a dose of cardiac glycosides (Digoxin, Lanoxin)
Bradycardia Resting heart rate of less than 60. Can be caused by physical cardio fitness
Tachycardia Resting heart rate greater than 100. Can be caused by caffiene, decongestants or drugs that are Adrenergic Agonists.
Premature ventricular contractions The electrical conduction starts at the Av node. - Q,R,S,T with no P wave
Ventricular fibrillation Fluttering- Muscle cells are contracting but chambers are not. Survival rate drops 10% per minute, and brain damage can occur rapidly. Caused by conduction system damage. Shock the heart to stop the heart and reset conduction system.
Ventricular defibrillation Must shock the heart to 'reset' it: stops the heart so that it can hopefully restart normally. Resets the conduction system.
Etiology of rheumatic heart disease Idiopathic, but always a sequela to a strep infection
Description of rheumatic heart disease Autoimmune- antibodies produced against strep infections can cause healthy, normal tissue to undergo inflammation -Rheumatic fever: Systemic inflammation -Rheumatic heart disease: Cardiac inflammation
Cor Pulmonale RCHF caused by a chronic respiratory disease
Ejection Fraction What percentage of the volume of the blood that is pumped in the heart gets pumped out of the heart.
Ranges for Ejection Fraction 55 - 70% = Normal 40 - 55% = Below normal Less than 40% = Heart failure
Stroke Volume the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle with each contraction
Normal range for Stroke Volume 50 - 100 mL/contraction directly proportional to body weight
Name the Cardiac Markers and when are they present in the blood. - Myoglobin: 2 hours to 24 hours (rises the fastest) - CK-MB: 4 hours to 4 days - Troponin: 6 hours to 7 days ( most commonly tested for cuz it stays in the blood the longest)
Define Afterload The force that the ventricle has to work against. The pressure in the ventricles is only slightly higher than the pressure in the Pulmonary trunk or arteries(RCHF), or the Aorta (LCHF).
Normal Sinus Rhythm Regular thythm of the heart. Resting heart rate of 60 - 100 beats per minute. Having the same intervals between P,Q,R,S,and T.
Atrial Fibrillation Ventricular tachycardia
Created by: owossopatho