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Science-Chapter 11

Just a list to help you study

Define photosynthesis Process by which plants and many other producers use light energy to produce a simple sugar from carbon dioxide and water and give off oxygen.
Define cellular respiration A series of chemical reactions that breaks down food molecules and release energy.
Define photoperiodism A plant's response to the lengths of daylight and darkness each day.
Define short-day plant Plants that generaly require long nights-12 hours or more of darkness-to begin the flowering process.
Define long-day plant Plant that generally requires shortnights-10 to 12 hours of darkness-to begin the flowering process.
Define auxins Plant hormone that causes plant leaves and stems to exhibit positive tropisms to light.
Define ethylene gas Produced in cells of ripening fruit, which stimulates the ripening process.
Describe how water gets into the plant The plant absorbs the water through its roots.
Define stomata tiny openings in a plant's epidermis through which carbon dioxide, water vapor, and oxygen enter and exit.
Define palisade layer Layer where most of the plant's food is made.
Define spongy layer Carbon dioxide and water vapor, which are needed in the food making process
Define gibberellins A fungus that infects stems of plants and causes them to grow too tall.
Define light-dependent Plants that require light for photosynthesis
Define light-independent Plants that don't require light for photosynthesis
Define cytokinins Promote growth by causing faster mitosis and cell divisions.
Define absicisic acid Substance that keeps seeds from sprouting and buds from developing in the winter.
Define tropism Positive or negative plant responses to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity.
Why do sunflowers only bloom in the summer? They are long day plants that require long days of sun and short periods of darkness.
Why do plants need glucose? It's the basis of a plant's structure, and serves as a food for the plant.
How does water vapor leave a leaf? Guard cells swell up with water and open the stomata, releasing water vapors and taking in carbon dioxide.
Why do the leaves of many trees change color in the autumn, die, and drop off? There's not enough sunlight to keep the pigment green.
Describe two ways plants use the products of photosynthesis They use the glucose for food and for plant structure.
How does auxin cause a plant to exhibit positive phototropism? When light shines on a plant from one side, the auxin moves to the shaded side of the stem, and causes a change in growth.
What is it about bananas that ripen after you bring them home from the store? The ethylene gas keeps it fresh until you bring it home to ripen.
What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6co2 + 6h2o + light energy ---- c6h12o6 + 6o2 (carbon dioxide + water + light energy ----- glucose + oxygen)
What is the equation for cellular respiration? c6h12o6 + 6o2 ---- 6co2 + 6h2o + energy (Glucose + oxygen ---- carbon dioxide + water + energy)
Define hormones Control the changes in growth that result from tropisms and affect other plant growth; substances that can be used in other parts of a plant.
What is the purpose of hormones? To help things grow and stimulate responses.