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Ch. 6-9

Anatomy & Physiology Final

Dermis Connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis comprised of mostly collagen; Lots of blood vessels; brings nutrients to the epidermis; House sweat glands and sebaceous glands, hair follicles, nail roots and piloerector muscles
Epidermis Stratified squamous epithelium; Lacks blood vessels; Dead cells at the surface packed with tough protein called keratin
Hypodermis Connective tissue underlying skin, subcutaneous tissue
5 types of epidermis cell types Keratinocytes, Stem cells, Melanocytes, Tactile cells, Dendritic cell
Keratinocytes Produce and store keratin, waterproofing
Stem Cells Undifferentiated cells that give rise to keratinocytes
Melanocytes Synthesize pigment melanin that sheilds DNA from ultraviolet radiation
Tactile Cells Touch receptors
Dendritic Cells (Langerhans) Macrophages that guard against pathogens
Layers of the Epidermis Stratum corneum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum spinosum, Stratum basale
Stratum Corneum Many layers of dead, scaly, keratinized cells that form the durable surface layer resistant to abrasion, penetration, and water loss
Stratum Lucidum A thin translucent zone seen only in thick skin
Stratum Granulosum Layers of flat keratinocytes containing dark- staining granules
Stratum Spinosum Several layers of keratinocytes; Cells are linked by numerous desmosomes, important for theri barrier function
Stratum Basale Primarily, stem cells and keratinocytes resting on the basement membrane with a scattering of melanocytes and tactile cells
Dermal Papillae Upward fingerlike extensions of the dermis
Papillary Layer Superficial zone of dermis; Areolar tissue
Reticular layer Deeper and much thicker layer of the dermis; Dense irregular tissue
Hair Follicle From which hair grows; Consist of 2 parts: epithelial root sheath and connective tissue root sheath
Hair Bulb A swelling at the base where hair originates in the dermis
Hair Root The remainder of the hair in the follicle
Hair Shaft The portion above the skin surface
Hair Matrix Region of mitotically active cells immediately above the papillae; growth center of hair
Dermal Papillae Bud of vascular connective tissue encased by the bulb; provides hairwith its only source of nutrition
Piloerector Muscle (Arrector pili) Bundles of smooth muscle cells, contractions produce goose bumbs; Located in the dermis layer
5 types of glands Merocrine Sweat glands, Aprocrine Sweat glands, Sebaceous glands, Cerumious glands. Mammary glands
Merocrine (Errine) Sweat Glands Makes watery perspiration that cools the body
Apocrine Sweat Glands Develope at puberty in groin axilla, areola, and beards in men; produce sweat that is thicker and carries scents
Sebaceous Gland Keeps the skin and hair from becoming brittle; Contains sebum
Ceruminous Glands Found only in external ear canal; waterproofs the canal and kills bacteria
Mammary Glands Milk- producing glands that develop only during pregnancy and lactation; modified apocrine gland
Skin Cancer Induced by the UV rays of the sun; one of the most common cancer but often high survival rates
3 types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Malignant melanoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma Most common type; Seldomly metastisizes; formed from cells in the stratum basale
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arise from keratinocytes from stratum spinosum
Malignant Melanoma Skin cancer that arises from melanocytes; Less than 5% of skin cancers but the most deadly; Metastisize rapidly and usually fatal
Warning signs in evaluating moles ABCD; Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, and Diameter
Periosteum External sheath that covers bone
Endosteum Layer of reticular connective tissue lining marrow cavity
Epiphyseal Plate Area of hyaline cartilage that separates the marrow saces of the epiphysis nad diaphysis; Enables growth in length, involutes in adults so bone can no longer lengthen
Features of flat bones 2 layers of compact bone enclosing middle layer of spongy bone
Bone Marrow Soft tissue that fils the marrow cavity of long bones and cavities between the trabeculae of spongy bone
Red Marrow Produces blood cells, in nearly every bone in children; in flat and spongy bone at proximal head of femur and humerus in adults
Yellow Marrow Found in adults; No longer produces blood
Osteoblasts Bone forming cells; layer under endosteum and periosteum; Synthesize bone matrix
Osteocytes Former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix that have become trapped in the matrix
Lacunae Tiny cavities where osteocytes reside
Cancaliculi Small channels that connect lacunae, allow diffusion of nutrients and communication between cells
Osteoclasts Bone- dissolving cells found on the bone surface; Arise from blood stem cells; multinucleated; Release calcium into blood for use
Remodeling Results from combined action of bone dissolving osteoclasts and the bone- depositing osteoblasts
Concentric Lamellae Regular layers of mineralized matrix and imbedded osteocytes
Circumferential Lamellae Surrond the mass of osteons, making up the outer layer of compact bone
Ligaments Hold bones together at the joints
Tendons Attach muscle to bone
The Matrix (Intracellular material) Osseous tissue about 1/3 organic and 2/3 inorganic
Spongy Bone (trabecular) Consists of trabeculae, spaces are filled with red bone marrow; Provides strength with minimal weight
Interstitial Growth Bones increase in length; Bone elongation from cartilage growth within the epiphyseal plate
Appositional Growth Bone increases in width throughout life; deposition of new bone at the surface, also forms circumferential lamellae
Wolff's Law of Bone Architecture of bone is determined by mechanical stresses placed on it; Remodeling is a collaboration between osteoblasts and osteoblasts
Calcitonin Secreted by C cells of the thyroid gland when calcium concentration rises to high; lowers by either osteoclast inhibition or osteoblast stimulation
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Secreted by the parathyroid glands when blood calcium levels are low; rises by either stimulating a rise in oseoblast population, calcium reapsorption, promote calcitrol synthesis, or inibit new bone formation
Calcitrol (Vitamin D) Raises blood calcium concentration by either increasing calcium absorption, increase calcium resorption, or promote kidney reabsorption of calcium ions
Osteoporosis The most common bone disease; Severe loss of bone density
Compact Bone Comprised of bundles of osteons
Osteon Include a central canal carrying blood vessels surrounded by regular layers of mineralized matrix
Bony Joint (synostosis) An immovable joint in which the gap between bone ossifies
Fibrous Joints (synarthrosis) Adjacent joint boned are bound by collagen fibers
Sutures Immovable or slightly movable fibrous joints that bind the bones of the skull
Gomphosis Attachment of a tooth to its socket
Syndesmosis Bones are bound by longer collagenous fibers that give the bones more mobility
Cartilaginous Joint Two bones are linked by cartilage
Synchrondosis Bones are bound by hyaline cartilage; epiphyseal plate in children
Symphysis Two bones joined together by fibrocartilage
Synovial Joints Bones are separated by a space called a joint cavity; most familiar and most freely movable
Articular Cartilage Layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the facing surface of two bones
Synovial Fluid Lubricant in the joint cavity that reduces friction and nourishes articular cartilage
Joint Capsule Connective tissue that encloses the cavity
Bursa A fluid filled sac that helps tendon slide more easily over joints
Tendon Sheaths Elongated bursae wrapped around a tendon
Types of Synovial joints Ball & Socket (shoulder, hip), Hinge (elbow, knee), Pivot (radius), Saddle (trapezionmetacarpal), Plane (intercaral), Condylar (radiocarpal)
Flexion Decrease joint angle
Extension Increases joint angle
Hyperextension Extension beyond zero position
Abduction Movement away from the midline
Adduction Movement toward the midline
Supination Movement of the forearm that turns the palm forward or upward
Pronation Movement of the forearm that turns the palm posteriorly or down
Elevation Raise vertically
Depression Lowering body
Protraction Movement anteriorly on transverse plane
Retraction Movement posteriorly on the transverse plane
Circumduction One end stationary while other end rotates
Rotation Bone turning around a fixed axis
Plantar Flexion Foot pointed downward
Dorsiflexion Foot pointed upward
Inversion Big toe pointed up, pinky toe down
Eversion Pinky toe pointing up, big toe down
Glenohumeral Joint Head of the humerus articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula
Rotator Cuff Made up of SITT muscles and biceps brachii
Hip Joint Point in which head of femur inserts into the acetabulum of the hip bone
Acetabular Labrum Horse- shoe shaped ring of fibrocartilage that deepens socket
Tibiofemoral Joint (knee joint) Articulation of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and tibia
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Prevents hyperextention
Lateral and Medial Meniscus Absorb shock on the knee and prevent the femur from rocking side to side on the tibia
Created by: Sweetp12407