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Allied Health

Urinary System

What are the functions of the urniary system? EXCRETION- removing nitrogenous wastes certain salts and excess water from blood, maintain acis-balance, secrete waste products in thr form of urine, eliminate urine from bladder, eliminate urine from blood.
What are the kidneys? Bean-shaped organs, located between peritoneum and the back muscles(RETROPERITONEAL), RENAL PELVIS-funnel shaped structure at the beginning of the ureter.
What would happen if the kidneys were not working properly? Toxic wastes would accumulate in the cells, poisiong themselves.
What is the medulla? Inner striated layer, striated cones are RENAL PYRAMIDS, base of each pyramid faces cortex, while apex empities into cuplike cavities called calyces
What is the coretx? Composed of milliomns of microscopic functional units called nephrons.
What is a nephron? Funtional unit of the kidney parts include: Bowmans's capsule, glomerulus, proxima convoluted tubule, loop of henle,distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule.
What is bowman's capsule? Double walled surrounding glomerulus.
What is the glomerulus? Cluster og capallaries that the Bowmans's capsule surrounds.
What are the triangle shaped divisons of the kidneys? They are known as pyramids.
Where does filtration of the kidneys occur? In the glomerulus
What is filtration? First step in urine formation, blodd from renal artery enter glomerulus, high pressurein glomerulus forces fluid(FILTRATE) to filter into Bowman's capsule, filtrate does not contain plasma proteins or RBC- they are too big.
What is reabsoption? Water and useful sustances are reabsorbed, if blood levels of certian subsatances are high(glucose, amino acids, vitamins, sodium) then those substances will not be reabsorbed.Urine in the kidneys/substances filter out of the renal tubules.
What is secretion? The opposite of reabsorpiton, secretion transports substances from blood into collecting tubules, substaces include creatinine, hydgrogen ions, potassium ions, and some drugs, electrolcytes are selectively secreted to maintain body's acid-base balance.
Whta id urinary output? Avearge=1500ml/day
What is urinalysis? Examinationof urine to determine presence of blood cells, bacteria, acidity level, specific gravity and physical characteristics(color, clarity, and odor)
What are ureters? One from each kidney, carry urine from kidney to bladder, smooth muscle tube with mucous membrane lining, peristalis pushed urine down ureters.
What is the urinary bladder? Hollow, muscular organ, made of elastic fiber and involuntatry muscle, stores urine-usually about 500cc, emptying urine(voiding) is involuntary but controlled through nervous system(voluntary) urine leaves thorugh urethra to outside opening(urinary meatus
What is the funtcion of the urinary bladder? Store and aid in the elimination of urine,
What is chemical control? Reabsorption of H2O in distal convoluted tubule controlled by ADH (antidiuretic hormone), secretion and regulation of AHD controlled by hypothalamus, DIURETICS:inhibit reabsorption of H2O
When does ADH( antidiuretic hormone) come into play? When one become dehydrated because you dont have enough liquid in your body.
What is nervous control? Direct control through nerve impulses on kidney blood vessels, indriect control through stimulation of endocrine galnds.
What is renal calculi(kidney stones)? Made of crystals of calcium phrosphate and uric acid, (too much calcium), gradually they get larger until they block ureters, increase fluid to flush out stone, medications if needed
What are the symtoms of renal calculi? Severe pain; nausea and vomiting, frequency, chills. feer, hematuria
What is lithotripsy? Surgical proceduce to remove kidney stones, shock waves hit dense stone and break them up, done on outpatient basis,
What is nephritis? Inflammationof the kidney(kidney infection)
What is cystitis? Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining og the urinary bladder, most commmon cause-E.Coli, symptoms DYSURIA-(painful urination) and frequency, usually in females(shorter urethra) treat with antibiotics
What is incontinence? Invouluntary urination
What is dialysis (hemodialysis)? Used for kidney failture, ivolves the passage of blood through device with semipermable membrane, dialysis serves as substitute kidney, blood from patient flows through machiene and is filtered, can be done at home or in a clinic, takes 2-4 hours,
How long is dialysis? 2-4 hours, 2-3 times a week
What is a kidney transplant? As a last resort, involves donor organ from someone with a similar immune system, main complacation- rejection(the body attacks the new organ because it doesnt recongize it and it eventually kills it).
What is enuresis? This is known as bedwetting.
What is glycosuria? This is known as sugar in the urine?
What is nocturia? Frequent urination at night
What is polyuria? This is known as large amounts of urine
What is pyuria? This is known as pus in the urine.
What is anuria? This is when no urine is produced.
Whar is hematuria? This is when there is blood present in the urine.
What is diuretic? This is when a drug or substance is used to increase urine production.
Created by: Netta16