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TRCC N101 Vital Sign

Vital signs, hypo/hypertension

QuestionAnswer
Define vital signs B/P, T, P, R -- indicators of health status, measure effectiveness of body functions, quick way to monitor a patient's condition
Risk factors for hyper/hypotension age, stress, ethnicity, gender, family history, medications, activity, weight, smoking
Incidence of hypertension increase of systole to 140+ and/or diastole to 90+, associated with thickening and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls. Incidence is greater in diabetics, older adults, and african americans.
Incidence of hypotension present when diastole falls below 90 mmHg. Occurs because of dilated arteries, loss of blood volume, or inability of heart to pump (i.e. myocardial infarction).
Impact of hypertension on wellness It is a major factor underlying deaths from strokes and is a contributing factor to MI.
Common errors in BP assessment cuff too big = false low reading, cuff too small = false high reading, deflating too slow = false high diastole, deflating cuff too fast = false high diastole and false low systole
Importance of early recognition and treatment to change modifiable risk factors without pharmacological intervention and decrease risk of stroke or MI
Basic goals of treatment for early stage hypertension teach risk factors and prevention, normal BP values, and long-term follow up care
Factors that affect vital signs - BP, P, T BP - cuff size, positioning, location where BP is taken, age, stress, time of day, apparatus used. P - location, elevation of extremity, age. T - location taken, drinking/eating hot/cold fluids or food if taken orally.
Factors that affect vital signs - R, O2, Pain R- age, Amt of activity before assessment, pain, tress, meds, neuro injury, if pt knows they are being assessed. O2 - location of reading, lack of O2 therapy if required. Pain - patient dependent.
Identify peripheral pulse sites temporal, carotid, apical, brachial, radial, ulnar, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis.
Identify variations in vital signs according to age Adult - T: 36-38C, P: 60-100, BP: <120/80, R: 12-20. Infant - T: same, P: more, BP: less, R: more. Child - T: same, P: more, BP: less, R: more. Adolescent - T: same, P: more, BP: less, R: less
Created by: cmroman444