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Daniels random 7

week 2 continued

Medium used to isolate Neisseria? Thayer martin
what does thayer martin contain? 1. vanco - gram pos; 2. colistin (polymyxin)-> gram neg; 3. trrimethoprim -> kill gram neg and other neisseria, 4. nystatin -> kill fungi
bilateral amydala a/w HSV1; kluver bucy
pilocytic astrocytoma GFAP+; cystic and solid; rosenthal fibers-> eosinphilic, corkscrew fibers; good bening
glioblastoma multiforme stain astrocytes for GFAP; pseudopalisading pleomorphic tumor cells -> border central necrosis and hemorrhage
on CN3 cross section, which part is output to ocular muscle inside - affected by vascular disease (DM), ptosis, down and out, nonreactive pupils
on CN3 cross section, which part is parasympathetic output? outside; affected by compression (PCOM aneurys) blown pupil -> use papillary light reflex
granuloma formation Th1 cells secrete gamma interferon -> macrophage activation -> TNF alpha from macrophages -> induce and maintain granuloma
iron poisoning 1. membrane lipid peroxidation -> cell death; 1. acute-> gastric bleeding; chronic -> met acidosis; scarring -> GI obstruction
contents of azurophilic granulese (lysosomes) in neutrophils hydrolytic enzymes, lysozyme, MPO, lactoferrin(binds Fe, inhib growth of bacteria and fungi)
in spirometry, at what point is PVR lowest? FRC; 1. maximal compliance, intrathoracic P is atmoshpheric, alveoli don't exert extra pressure on vasculature
watershed regions cause what in hypotension upper leg/upper arm weakness ACA, MCA; decreased higher order visual processing MCA/PCA
disk herniation nucleus pulposes thru annular fibrosis, bet L5-S1
paget's disease large cells in epidermis w/ clear halo; eczematous patches on nipple; suggests carcinoma; also seen on vulva
inflammatory breast cancer peae d'orange; 50% 5 year survival; dermal lymphatic invasion + block drainage
medullary breast cancer fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate; good prognosis
invasive lobular orderly row of cells; often multiple; bilateral
invasive ductal firm, fibrous, rock hard mass with sharp margins and small glandular duct like cells; classic "stellate" morphology; most common; bAD!
comedocarcinoma non-invasive, ductal, caseous necrosis surrounded by cancercells
what causes recurrent lobar hemorrhage with stroke cerebral amyloid angiopathy
eczematous dermatitis (i.e.e contact dermatitis) histo is spongiosis
decreased ESR sickle cell, polycythemia vera, CHF, microcytosis, hypofibrinogenemia
MCC acute prostatitis E. coli
MCC chronic prostatitis abacterial
PICA stroke 1. lateral medulla -> vestibular nuclei, lat ST tract, trigeminal nucleus, nucleus ambiguus (SPECIFIC to PICA), sympathetic fibers
what produces aqeous humor? ciliary epithelium
astrocytes reactive gliosis; K+ metabolism, maintainence of BBB
BCC palisading nuclei; rolled edges with central ulceration, pearly papules -> common telangiectasias
melanoma S100, dysplastic nevus, depth of tumor determines risk
EHEC toxin inactivate 60s (often in colon and renal cells) HUS
clubbing associated with? in lung lung cancer, TB, CF, bronchiectasis, pulm HTN, empyema, and other hypoxic chronic dz
clubbing in heart cyanotic five T's; bacterial endocarditis
clubbing a/w what in other? IBD; hyperthyroidism; malabsorption
cystinuria inborn defect in transporter of cystine, ornithine, arginine and lysine; cystine stones; AR
IF in pemphigus vulgaris reticular or netlike pattern
IF in bullous pemphgoid linear
mucinous cystadenocarcinoma pseudomyxoma peritonei-> intraperioneal accumulation of mucous material from ovarian or appendical tumor
mucinous cystadenoma intestine like tissue
function of CN7 facial movement; taste anterior 2/3, lacrimation, salivation (submandibular and sublingual), eyelid closure (obicularis oculi), stapedius muscle
function of CN9 taste posterior 1/3, swallowing, salivation, afferent carotid body and sinus, stylopharyngeus ->elevates pharynx, larynx
function of CN10 taste epiglottic, swallowing, palate elevation, midline uvula, talking, coughing, viscera, aortic arch chemo baroreceptors
nuclei in midbrain 3 and 4
nuclei in pons 5,6,7,8
nuclei in medulla 9,10,11,12
lateral nuclei =? sensory (alar plate)
medial nuclei? medial = motor (basal plate)
liver takes up unconj bilirubint through a ___ process passive
liver secretes conjugated bilirubin through a __ process active
lead poisoning affected enzymes ALA dehydratase, ferrochelotase; protoporphryin accumulates
Rheumatoid nodules central fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by a rim of palisading histiocytes and chronic lymphocytic infiltrate
what does the arteriovenous cencentration reflect? solubiltiy in tissues
high av gradient means? high soubility -> slow onset of action
maculopapular rash begins on face and spreads down measles (rubeola) -> paramyxovirus; german measles (rubella) -> togavirus. Rubella has postauricular and occipital lymphadenopathy
pemphigus vulgaris acantholysis, positive nikolsky
bullous pemphigoid seub-epidermal, tense, eosinophils
macula adherens desmosome; cadherens to intermediate filaments
zona adherens intermediate junction; cadherens connect to actin; Cadherins are Ca dependent adhesion moecules
cerebellar output nerve route purkinje fibers -> deep nuclei_> superior cerebral peduncles
nucleus aMbiguus 9,10,11; Motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus
keloid large collagen bundles lying in parallel with one another; excess connective tissue; hypertrphic scars are disorganized arrangement
ear cutaneous innervation of posterior external auditory canal CN10 -> via auricular branch
inner surface of tympanic membrane CN8 via tympanic branch
rest of canal CNV3 via auricotemporal branch
cerebellar deep nuclei Don't eat greasy foods (lateral to medial) dentate; emboliform, globuse, fastigial
dorsal motor nucleus sends parasympathetic fibers
lesion of cn12 causes what? tongue toward side of lesion
cn10 lesion uvula away from lesion
cn11 cannot turn head away to contralateral side, ipsilateral shoulder droop
cn5 motor jaw toward lesion (due to force of opposite pterygoid muscle)
Rinne fork at easr, mastoid process
weber fork at forehead, or above mouth, below nose
granulation tissue highly vascularized, fibrotic
thromboangiitis obliterans histo segmenting thrombosing vasculitis often extending into contiguous veins and nerves
what gives elastin its plasticity and recoil ability desmosine cross linking between lysin residues on elastin chains (has a lot of nonpolar AA just like collagen)
leptin positive on ventromedial area -> satiety if you zap it, you get fat
if you zap the lateral area? lateral area- you shrink laterally
alternative way of fructose metabolism? via hexokinase -> fructokinase 6 phophatase
myelin effect on space constant and conduction velocity increases it
effect of AP on MLCK AP -> SM mem depolarization -> open voltage gated Ca channels -> increase Ca cytoplasm -> Ca binds calmodulin -> activates MLCK -> contraction
CN3 parasympathetic pupil constrict; EW nucleus, muscarinic receptor
limbic system hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, fornix, mamillary bodies, septal nucleus
anal sq cell carcinoma presentation ulcerative mass
AIP symptoms 5P's painful abdomen, psychosis, red urine, polyneuropathy, worse by drugs. Tx with glucose and heme
inflammatory cell composition of Type B chronic gastritis lymphocyte and plasma cell predominent (vs. acute gastritis is neutrophils)
how do T cells affect candida? defense against local infections- oral thrus, cutaneous candida, vulvovag
how do neutrophils affect candida? prevent hematogenous spread ->systemic infection
AIP affected enzyme prophobilinogen deaminase (uroporph I synthase); accumulation of porhobilinogen, ALA uroporphyrin in urine
glaucoma open/wide angle obstructed outflow/drainage-myopia, increased age, silent, painless
glaucoma closed angle obstructed flow between iris and cornea -> increased pressure behind iris. painful, decreased vision, rock hard eye, frontal HA, emergency, C/I epi
ASA damage contralateral hemiparesis lower limb (lateral cortcospinal tract), proprioception (medial leminiscus); ipsilateral tongue deviation (caudal medulla CN12)
PICA stroke vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus, dysphagia, horseness, decreased gag reflex, ipsilateral horner's syndrome, ataxia, limbs/face decreased pain and temp
VPL input ST and DCML
VPL info P and temperature, pro., touch, vibration
VPL destination primary somatosensory cortex
uncal herniation cause ipsilateral dilated pupil/ptosis CN3 stretch
contralateral homonymous hemangiopia compresion ipsilataeral PCA
Created by: ilovemusic007



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