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usmle world q

QuestionAnswer
hydroxychloroquine SE permanent retinal damage
se of methotrexate mouth ulcers, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, myelosuppression, increased risk for opp. infxns, B cell lymphoma, pulm fibrosis.
tx for abscess in lung clindamycin to cover anaerobes
MOA of ethambutol inhibits carbohydrate polymerization -> prevents peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis
side effect of ethambutol optic neuritis, decreased visual acuity, central scotoma, color blindness
mech of resistance of rifampin spontaneous genetic mutations of the bacterial DNA dependent RNA polymerase
painless hematuria 2-3 days after an URI IGA nephropathy- berger disease
unmineralized spongiosa in medullary canals osteopetrosis
osteoid matrix accumulation around trabeculae rickets
drugs that prolong QT macrolides (block K+ channels); flunconazol; class 1A, 1C, 3 antiaryhtmics
conditions that prolong QT liver disease ( increase toxicity of drugs), hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, acidosis, heart failure, hypoxia
WPW shortened PR interval, widened QRS, delta wave which signifies early depolarization
alpha 1 blocker associated with first dose resoponse orthostatic hypotension prazosin
selective alpha 2 blocker mirtazipine for depression
alpha 1 and alpha 2 phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine
sotalol beta blocker and potassium channel blocker
labetalol alpha and beta blocker
carvedilol alpha and beta blocker
non depolarizing NMJ blockers curoniums - Rocuronium
depolarizing NMJ blocker succinylcholine
receptor that decreases insulin release alpha 2
receptor that increases renin beta 1
increases lipolysis via HSL (hormone sensitive lipase) beta 1
relaxes uterus beta 2
increases liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis beta 2
inhibits mast cell release beta 2
↑ gastric acid secretion, found in CNS M1
decreases HR, decreases contractility, decreases AV node conduction M2
increases peristalsis, increases bladder contraction, increases exocrine gland secretions, bronchoconstriction, contracts the sphincter pupillae (miosis) M3
renal vasodilation D1
dopamine control in brain D2
mast cell degranulation, nasopharyngeal/bronchial mucus production, bronchial vasoconstriction. H1
increases vascular smooth muscle contraction V1
increases gastric acid secretion H2
vasopressin receptor in collecting tubules ↑ H2O reabsorption V2
vasoconstriction, constricts uterus, contracts pupillary dilator (mydriasis), constricts sphincters in intestine as well as internal urethral sphincter alpha 1
location of CYP450 inner membrane of mitochondria or smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Drugs that induce P450 (and are ∴ contraindicated in porphyrias! Barb-E Steals Smokin Phen-phen, INDUCES vomiting, and Refuses Greasy Gluttonous Carbs Chronically"
CYP450 substrates substrates: Acetaminophen, Warfarin, numerous Cardiovascular drugs
tardive dyskinesia metoclopromide, antipsychotics
disulfiram like rxn Metronidazole; Sulfonylureas, 1st generation; Griseofulvin; Some cephalosporins Procarbazine
cholinergic syndrome Cholinesterase inhibitors: neostigmine, physostigmine; Organophosphates (Sarin, Soman); Cholinomimetics: Pilocarpine, Carbachol, Bethanechol
anticholinergic syndrome "All These Quirks Are Muscarinic Antagonists": Antipsychotics, TCAs, Quinidine, Amantadine, Meperidine, Antihistamines
Created by: ilovemusic007