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eye and ear

exam 7 alterations

what is cataracts Opacity of the lens that distorts the image projected onto the retina and can progress to blindness
what causes cataracts aging process, inherited, injury or other eye diseases
what is secondary cataracts caused by DM, maternal rubella, severe myopia, UV light exposure and steroids
interventions for cataracts Removal of lens Lens implant one eye at a time
cataract manifestations Blurred vision Decreased color vision White pupil Diplopia Reduced visual acuity Reduced red reflex Pain or redness LOSS OF VISION IS GRADUAL
pre op care for cataracts Administer eye drops mydriatics and cycloplegics as prescribed (they dilate the pupil) Atropine, cyclogyl, isopto and opticyl
post op care for cataracts Elevate head of bed 30-45 degrees Turn client to back or non-operative side Wear a patch at night to avoid scratching No bending at waist Position clients’ belongings on non-operative side
post op care for cataracts Use side rails for safety Assist with ambulation Avoid rapid movements – straining, sneezing, coughing, bending, vomiting or lifting heavy object over 5lbs Take measures to prevent constipation Wear dark glasses
post op care for cataracts It may take several months to get vision back to normal Depth perception will be off so maintain caution with stairs
what is glaucoma increased intraocular pressure, normal pressure is 10-21mmHg, damages optic nerve and can cause blindness, gradual loss of vision, LOSS OF PERIPHERAL VISION
does open angle glaucoma affect both eyes yes
does closed angle glaucoma affect both eyes no
which glaucoma is a medical emergency closed angle
what are the manifestations of closed angle glaucoma painful, sudden vision changes, blurred vision, halos around light, ocular erythema
what are the manifestations of open angle glaucoma painless, vision changes slow, “tunnel” vision
interventions for glaucoma Importance of taking lifelong meds, miotics (constrict pupils), carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (decrease production of aqueous humor), beta blockers (decrease production of aqueous humor and decrease intraocular pressure)
interventions for glaucoma Wear medic-alert bracelet Avoid anticholinergic meds Report halos, changes in vision to MD
indications for glaucoma Surgery may be needed if meds to not help Contact MD before taking OTC meds Client may need trabeculoplasty (draining of aqueous humor)
medications for glaucoma Beta blockers (Ocupress, -olols) Alpha agonists (-idine) Prostaglandin (-prost) Cholinergic (-ide)
medications for glaucoma Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (-mides) Nonselective adrenergic agonist (propine) AVOID ATROPINE it increases intraocular pressure
what is a retinal detachment detachment of the retina from the epithelium When detachment becomes complete, blindness occurs
manifestations of retinal detachment Flashes of light Floaters (signs of bleeding) Increased blurry vision Sense of curtain being drawn over eye
manifestations of retinal detachment Loss of portion of field, painless loss of central or peripheral vision
interventions for retinal detachment Provide bed rest Cover both eyes to prevent further detachment Speak to client before approaching Position clients head as prescribed (if right eye affected turn head to right, left to left)
interventions for retinal detachment Protect client avoid jerky movements Minimize eye stress Prepare client for surgery
what is macular degeneration CENTRAL VISION GONE, leading cause of legal blindness
what are the two types of macular degeneration Age related (dry) – ischemia and necrotic macula, rods and cones die most common, slow progression Exudative (wet) – scar formation and visual distortion, fast progression
what are the manifestations for macular degeneration Decline in central vision Blurred vision and distortion
what are the interventions for macular degeneration Aimed at maximizing remaining vision Laser therapy Photodynamic therapy-wet
what are medications for macular degeneration Macugen, Avastin, Lucentis
what is conjunctivitis most common eye disease, bacterial or viral, acute or chronic
what is the most common conjunctivitis, acute pink eye
what are signs and symptoms of pink eye redness, itching, burning and light sensitivity Highly contagious
manifestations of conjunctivitis visual disturbances
how is conjunctivitis diagnosed culture and sensitivity
what meds are used for conjunctivitis Anti-inflammatory – restasis, ocufen, optivar, opticrom, emadine Anti-infective – antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral
what is trachoma due to chlamydia in southwest native American culture
what is external otitis (swimmer’s ear) – infective inflammatory or allergic response
what are the manifestations for external otitis Pain Itching Plugged feeling in ear Redness/edema Exudate Hearing loss
interventions for external otitis Apply heat for 20 minutes 3x daily Encourage rest Administer antibiotics or steroids as prescribed Administer analgesics as prescribed
interventions for external otitis Instruct client to keep ears clean and dry Use earplugs for swimming Do not use cotton tipped swabs as damage can result Hair products and headphones should not be used
medications for external otitis Antibiotics – amoxicillin, penicillin, erythromycin
what is mastoiditis acute or chronic, resulting from untreated ear infection
manifestations of mastoiditis Reddened dull thick immobile tympanic membrane Tender enlarged lymph nodes Low grade fever Malaise Anorexia Swelling behind ear and pain with minimal movement of head
interventions for mastoiditis Prepare client for surgical intervention Monitor for complications – increased risk for spreading into brain
what is meniere's disease over production of fluid in the ear, caused by viral and bacterial infections, biochemical disturbances, vascular disturbances, long-term stress
manifestations of meniere's disease Feeling of fullness in ear Tinnitus Hearing loss Vertigo Nausea/vomiting Nystagmus (rapid involuntary movement of the eye) Severe headaches
interventions for menieres disease Client safety is most important Prevent injury Bed rest Salt and fluid restriction Smoking cessation
medications for meniere's disease Valium Meclizine Diuretics
Created by: bkgrota