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seizure care & diag

exam 7 alterations

what is a seizure an abnormal, sudden, excessive discharge of electrical activity within the brain
what is epilepsy a disorder characterized by chronic seizure activity and indicates brain or CNS irritation
what is status epilepticus a rapid succession of epileptic spasms without intervals of consciousness, it is a potential complication that can occur with any type of seizure and brain damage may result
what is status epilepticus treated with valium and ativan
what are the causes of seizures genetic factors, trauma, tumors, circulatory or metabolic disorders, toxicity, and infections
what are the types of generalized seizures tonic clonic (grand mal), absence, myoclonic and atonic
what are the types of partial seizures simple partial and complex partial
what is a tonic clonic (grand mal) seizure begins with an aura, tonic phase stiffening, followed by LOC, clonic phase hyperventilation and jerking
how do you treat a tonic clonic seizure barbiturates (Amytal/Mebaral/Luminal)
what is an absence seizure a brief seizure that lasts seconds, the individual may or may not lose consciousness
what are manifestations of an absence seizure No loss or change in muscle tone Seizures may occur several times during a day Victim appears to be daydreaming More common in children
what do you treat absence seizures with benzodiazepines, valium, ativan and zarontin, celotin and troxidone
what is a myoclonic seizure brief generalized jerking, or stiffening of extremities, the victim may fall to the ground
what is a myoclonic seizure treated with depakene, depacon or Depakote ER
what is an atonic seizure sudden momentary loss of muscle tone Victim may fall to the ground
what are partial seizures treated with hydantoins (peganone/cerebyx/Dilantin)
what is a simple partial seizure produce sensory symptoms accompanied by motor symptoms that are localized or confined to a specific area Client is conscious and may report an aura
what is a complex partial seizure psychomotor seizure, most often involving the temporal lobe, characterized by periods of altered behavior of which the client is unaware, client loses consciousness for a few seconds
what is a priority of a patient having a seizure maintain a patent airway but NEVER force the jaws open or place anything in the clients’ mouth
anticonvulsant medications are used for seizures why? are used to depress abnormal neuronal discharges and prevent the spread of seizures to adjacent neurons
anticonvulsants are used in caution with what patients patients taking aspirin, anticoagulants, sulfonamides, Tagamet and antipsychotic drugs, absorption is decreased with the use of antacids, calcium and antineoplastic drugs, monitor liver, renal and serum blood levels for medication efficacy.
what is the medication that seizure patient s can take if nothing else works Iminostilbenes, lyrica and topamax
patient education while on anticonvulsants Take with food but avoiding milk and antacids If liquid, shake well before dispensing Do not discontinue meds Avoid alcohol/OTC drugs Wear a medic-alert bracelet
patient education while on anticonvulsants Use caution when driving or doing activities that require alertness Maintain good oral hygiene and use soft toothbrush Maintain preventative dental checkups Maintain follow-up health care visits including blood studies
patient education while on anticonvulsants Monitor serum glucose levels if DM Urine may be a harmless pink-red or red-brown Report symptoms of sore throat, bruising, nosebleeds which may indicate blood dyscrasia (decreased platelet count and decreased WBC)
inform MD if symptoms occur following anticonvulsant use bleeding gums, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, slurred speech, rash or dizziness
Created by: bkgrota