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neuro diagnostics

exam 7 alterations

CT Scan used to detect intracranial bleeding, space-occupying lesions, cerebral edema, infarctions, hydrocephalus, cerebral atrophy and shifts of brain structures
CT Pre-procedure obtain informed consent, assess for allergies to iodine and shell fish, withhold glucophage, may be hot flushed feeling and metallic taste
CT post-procedure provide replacement fluids, monitor for allergic reaction to dye, assess iv line
MRI noninvasive procedure that identifies tissue, tumors and vascular abnormalities, similar to CT but has more detailed pictures
MRI Pre-procedure remove all metal objects, assess for pacemaker, metal implants or vascular clips, pulse ox precautions
MRI post procedure client can resume normal activity, expect diuresis
MRI contraindicated when pregnant woman
MRA can provide information about the blood vessels of the brain and identify any lesions pre and post procedure is the same for MRI
PET scan can assess normal brain function and cerebral blood flow and volume, it can differentiate different types of dementia and can identify brain tumors
PET pre-procedure no coffee or alcohol or smoking 24 hours prior,assess glucose levels
PET post procedure encourage oral fluids to eliminate radioactive material
cerebral angiogram injection of contrast material through femoral artery into carotid arteries to visualize the cerebral arteries and assess for lesions
cerebral angiogram pre procedure obtain consent, assess allergies, assess for anticoagulation therapy, encourage hydration 2 days prior, NPO 4-6 hours before, base line neuro assessment, mark peripheral pulses
cerebral angiogram post procedure monitor vitals and neuro status, swelling and difficult swallowing, maintain bed rest 12 hours, elevate head of bed 15-30 degrees, keep head of bed flat if femoral artery used, assess peripheral pulses, place ice on puncture site, encourage fluid
carotid duplex study evaluates velocity of blood flow through carotid arteries and identifies occlusive disease. Sound waves produced by the blood flow are used to produce an image
EEG graphic recording of the electrical activity of the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex
EEG pre procedure wash clients hair, electrodes attached to head, withhold stimulants 24-48 hours prior to exam, allow client to have breakfast
EEG post procedure wash clients hair, maintain safety measures, side rails up
lumbar puncture insertion of a small needle into L3-L4 to obtain CSF, measure CSF pressure, instill air, dye or medications
lumbar puncture pre procedure obtain informed consent, empty bladder
lumbar puncture intra procedure client is in lateral recumbent position knees to chest, assist with collection of material
lumbar puncture post procedure monitor vitals and neuro symptoms, position client flat, encourage fluids, monitor intake and output
EMG (electromyogram) measures electrical activity of skeletal muscles at rest and during contraction, it is useful in diagnosing neuromuscular diseases
EMG pre procedure no smoking or caffeine 3 hours before test, assess meds, patient should not be on muscle relaxants, anticholinergics, or cholinergics
EMG post procedure serum enzyme drawn 5-10 days after procedure
myelogram injection of air or dye into the subarachnoid space to detect abnormalities of the spinal cord and vertebrae
myelogram pre procedure obtain consent, hydration 12 hours before test, assess allergies, if client is on phenothiazine withhold it, premedicate with sedation as needed
myelogram post procedure assess vitals and neuro status, maintain bed rest, administer pain meds for backache and headache, encourage fluids, monitor I&O, at least 30mL/hr
Created by: bkgrota