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IV stuff

QuestionAnswer
osmosis is? movement of fluid from area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration to reach equilibrium.
diffusion is? movement of solid particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration to reach equilibrium.
1st space shifting normal dist. of fluid in both ECF and ICF compartments
2nd space shifting excess accumulation of interstitial fluid i.e. edema
3rd space shift fluid accumulation in areas that normally have little to no fluid in them. i.e. ascites.
normal osmolarity of plasma? 270-300
isotonic fluids close to same osmolarity of plasma. stay inside the intravascular compartment. expand ECF volume.
isotonic fluids purpose? poss. probs? replace or maintain fluids. use to treat hypovolemic or hypotensive patn. poss probs include circulatory overload/electrolyte overload or deficit.
hypotonic fluid: less osmo. than plasma. use to correct dehydration. use to treat cellular dehydration. too much can cause intravascular fluid depletion (decreased BP, cellular edema, cell damage, increased intracranial pressure).
hypertonic fluid: higher osmolarity than plasma. use as a nutrient source, can stabilize BP and urine output, can decrease edema. poss. probs include ECF volume excess, circ. overload, cellular dehydration.
crystalloid: isotonic, good volume expander for short term. long term use risks pulmonary edema.
colloid: have molecules too large to go thru capillary membranes so stay in intravascular compartments. draw fluid into vessels. good for reducing edema. can cause dramatic fluid shifts. ex. albumin, steroids.
infiltrations signs and treatment: edema at insertion site, discomfort at site, decreased flow rate, leaking fluid at site. stop infusion, put on sterile dressing, cold compress if new, warm compress if old, elevate extremity, start new IV in new site or proximal to infiltrated area.
phlebitis signs and treatment: red, warm, pain at insertion site. d/c iv and start in new site. give warm moist compress.
thrombophlebitis: localized pain at site, red, warm, swollen, slow rate, fever, malaise, leukocytosis. treat by d/c iv, first cold compress then warm one. elevate extremity. restart iv in opposite extremity.
extravasation: tissue slough, blistered, necrotic. stop iv but leave in to send antidote to affected area. then give warm or cold compress.
hematoma signs treatment: ecchymosis, swelling at site, leaking of blood at site. treat by taking out iv, put pressure w/ dry sterile dressing. give ice for 24 hrs then use warm compress.
how long can solution hang? 24 hrs unless otherwise specified.
when is tubing changed? 96 hrs
what happens when ECF becomes hypertonic and fluid shifts from cells into ECF? dehydration
what are 6 rights of medication admin? right medication, right dose, right time, right route, right client, right documentation. mnemonic: my dog tries running cars daily
air embolism s/s dyspnea, hypotension, anxiety, light headed, dizzy, weak/thready pulse, tachycardia, cyanosis nail beds, decreased LOC, pain in shoulder/chest/back.
air embolism treatment? clamp cannula. put patn on left side in Trendelenburg. assess vs and breath sounds. prepare for ABGs and ECG.
s/s pulmonary embolism? dsypnea, tachypnea, cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, anxiety, tachycardia, diaphoresis, syncope.
treatment for pulmonary embolism? symptomatic-maintain cardio respiratory f(x).
how do you calculate drip rate? amt of fluid X drop factor divided by hours to admin. X 60
Created by: wilsoj7