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Affinity Chromatography Separates proteins by capturing those that bind to a particular ligand
Aliphatic Structure in which the carbon atoms are linked in open chains, as apposed to rings
Amino Acid building blocks of proteins
Assay lab test used to measure the presence of a substance in a sample
Chiral A molecule that has a nonsuperimposable mirror image is:
Conformation spatial arrangement of atoms in a protein
Denatured State unfolded or inactive conformation; dysfunctional state
Enantiomer a mirror image isomer
Gel Filtration Chromatography Separates proteins on a basis of size
Hair, fingernails, horns made of alpha helical conformation
Heteromeric A structure composed of multiple different polypeptides is:
Homology Modeling Comparative modeling of proteins, checking for similar structures in related proteins
Homomeric A structure composed of multiple versions of the same polypeptide is:
Hydrophobic nonpolar, does not dissolve in water
Ion Exchange Chromatography Separates proteins on a basis of charge
Ligand Small molecule that binds specifically to a larger one
Native State folded or active conformation
NMR A structure characterization method that can be used with proteins in solution and that gives information about protein dynamics
Oligomeric A molecule that consists of a few subunits is:
Peptide short chain of amino acids
Prosthetic Group A chemical compound (such as heme) that gives a protein additional chemical reactivity and thus helps the protein do its job
Protease protein cutter
Residue an amino acid in a protein
SDS Page A method of purifying proteins by molecular weight
Silk made of beta sheets
Spider Silk composed of both alpha and beta conformations
Supernatant The liquid that lies above the sedimented pellet after centrifugation
X-ray Crystallography Method used to determine internal structure of cell; must be crystallized
Allosteric Modulator A ligand that causes a conformational change that alters binding of another ligand
Allosteric Protein A protein where binding a ligand at one site causes a conformational change that alters binding of a ligand at another
Antibody Protein that binds specifically to invaders outside of cells
Antigen Ligand for an antibody
Autoimmune Disease When the immune system begins attacking the self
Elementary Reaction Reaction that occurs in one step
Endergonic A reaction with a positive delta G is considered to be
Enzyme A protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
Exergonic A reaction with a negative delta G is considered to be
Heterotropic Allosteric Regulation When an allosteric modulator is the different from the other ligand
Homotropic Allosteric Regulation When an allosteric modulator is the same as the other ligand
Immunofluoresce Appropriate technique to localize a particular protein inside a cell
Kinases Phosphorylate proteins
MHC Molecules Show immune system what is inside cell; present fragments to the outside world
Phosphatases Dephosphorylate proteins
Porphyrin Heme is an example of a:
Prion Protein with two conformational states
Proteolysis The process of cutting a protein into pieces
Steady State [ES] and any other intermediates build up and stay relatively constant with time
Substrate A ligand that is chemically altered by an enzyme
Western Blot Appropriate technique to localize where a particular protein is on an SDS gel
Active Transport Using energy to pass solute across a membrane
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Type of gel matrix that separates DNA pieces on the basis of size
Amphipathic hydrophobic on one end, hydrophilic on other
Carbohydrate sugar polymer
Chromatin Remodeling The process of altering DNA packing
Cloning process of producing genetically identical pieces of DNA
DNA Form of nucleic acid that stores genetic information
DNA Ligase An enzyme that repairs the covalent break in the DNA produced by restriction enzymes
DNA Polymerase The enzyme that replicates DNA
Elute To extract something by use of a solvent
Exons Sections that are connected from DNA in the process of making RNA
Extracellular Matrix (ECM) gel-like material in extracellular space of tissues
Flagella Locomotory structures that rotate and so cause bacteria to move
Gene segment of DNA that contains the information required for the synthesis of a polypeptide chain
Glycoprotein A protein with sugars attached to it
His-tag a sequence that can be genetically fused to a protein to allow one to purify expressed fusion protein by affinity chromatography
Inducer something that turns gene expression ON
Introns Sections that are removed from DNA in the process of making RNA
Micelle Group of cone-shaped lipids that form a sphere
Nucleus Subcellular structure containing the DNA
Palindrome A sequence that reads the same backwards or forwards
Plasmid a DNA molecule that can replicate independently of the chromosome
Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique for amplifying DNA
Promoter The DNA sequence at the beginning of the gene to which the RNA polymerase binds
Replication Process of creating DNA
Repressor something that turns gene expression OFF
Restriction Enzymes Enzymes that bind to and cut DNA molecules at specific sequences
Reverse Transcriptase enzyme that makes DNA from RNA
Ribosome Molecular machine that makes protein
RNA Intermediary between DNA and protein
Transcription Process of creating RNA
Translation Process of creating Protein from RNA
Transposon A virus-like DNA segment that can move from one position in the genome to another (jumping genes)
Vector an agent that carries something into an organism
Actin Filaments that provide the force that propels cells moving
Allele particular sequence variant of a gene that gives rise to a particular phenotype
Anabolism process of making complex biomolecules from simpler substituents
Angiogenesis process of growing new blood vessels
Apoptosis programmed cell death
Autotrophs get energy from inorganic sources
Axon part of neuron that conducts information to target cells
cAMP an example of a second messenger
Catabolism process of extracting energy from complex biomolecules and/or breaking these molecules into simpler pieces
Cellular Respiration The process of converting chemical energy into ATP that cells can use
Cyclins proteins that are the master controllers of the cell cycle
Cytokinesis Partitioning of the cytoplasm
Dendrites projections from cell body that receive information from other neurons
Differentiation specialization of cells for different structures, functions
Diploid organism or cell with two copies of each chromosome
Electron Transport Chain series of molecules with consecutively higher affinity for electrons, results in release of free energy
Endoplasmic Reticulum organelle that is responsible for synthesizing membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins
Endosymbiont Hypothesis The theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts came from bacteria and were taken up by eukaryotes
Eutrophication What happens when excess nutrients enter a body of water
Genotype the genetic makeup of an individual
Haploid organism or cell with one copy of each chromosome
Heterotrophs get energy by breaking down complex organic molecules
Heterozygous state where both alleles of a gene are different
Homeotic Genes Transcription factors that control segment identity in development are called:
Homozygous state where both alleles of a gene are the same
Ionophore A lipid-soluble molecule that binds specific ions and helps them diffuse through membranes
Kinetochore Structure that forms at the centromere during mitosis, binds microtubules
Meiosis Process of generating 1n cells (germ cells)
Mesoderm primitive tissue that gives rise to muscle
Metastisis process in which a cancer colonizes new tissue
Microtubule cytoskeletal filament that forms the mitotic spindle
Mitochondria Organelle responsible for cellular respiration
Mitosis Cell division that leads to simple replication of the parental cell
Morphogenesis the shaping of the multicellular body and its organs (pattern formation)
Myelin specialized plasma membrane that wraps around neurons and insulates them electrically
NAD/NADH electron carrier involved in catabolic reactions
NADP/NADPH electron carrier involved in anabolic reactions
Necrosis when cells are damaged by poisons or are starved of essential nutrients, so therefore swell and burst
Phenotype the observable properties of an individual
Photosynthesis process by which energy of light is trapped and used to synthesize ATP and carbohydrates
Pili Threadlike structures that help bacteria adhere to one another
Proto-oncogene when mutated, increases cancer
Recombination crossing-over of chromosomes
Second Messengers small, diffusible molecules that convey to the cytoplasm the presence of an external stimulus
Tumor-supressor gene when function is lost, increases cancer
Uncouplers agents that separate electron transfer from phosphorylation
Earth System Science study of flow of energy, atoms through geosystem
Metabolism study of flow of energy, atoms through organism
Stem Cells Primal, undifferentiated cells that have the capacity to produce many or all cells in the body
System A regularly interacting or interdependent group of entities that work together to create a unified whole
ELISA Test that uses primary and secondary antibodies to detect for the presence of specific antigens in a sample
Histone Protein complex used in eukaryotic organisms to tightly wrap DNA into chromosomes.
Gastrulation the process where the hollow sphere (blastula) of the early embryo starts to fold in to form the primitive germ layers (three layers)
Synport When two molecules are transported in same direction
Antiport When two molecules are transported in opposite directions
Created by: rdrumm