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T/F There is a universally recognized ethical theory or ethical system False- There is NO universal system
What are the 3 major theories/theoretical concepts in ethics? 1. Dentological 2. Consequentalist 3. Virtue Ethics
________ is "The Rights Approached" and also known as the duty based theory Deontological ethics
Deontological ethics focuses on ___, or what is ____ instead of the outcome. what is right; right
Ethical action is the one that best ____ and ___ the moral rights of those affected. protects and respects
All human beings have intrinsic value (not monetary) possessing certain inherent characteristics that distinguishes humans from other living beings Dignity
Being ____ or ____ compromised, being infant or senile or deceased does not curtail the intrinsic dignity or value mentally or physically
The rights approach is based on the belief that humans have ___ based on their human nature or on their ability to make free choices about what they want to do in their lives dignity; humans have right not to be abused or treated less than human
Rights imply ___ duties, the duty to respect other people's rights
Independent dignity comes partly from possessing personal autonomy which entails: capacity for judgement, ability to decide and follow actions that are truly of one's choice
Diminished or absent autonomy (mental, physical compromise or infants) does not ____ intrinsic dignity or respect invalidate
According to the_____ killing innocent human beings (eg. abortion even when mothers life is compromised is morally unacceptable) "The rights approach" or duty based ethics
This concept emphasizes that the nature of the action is not important but the outcome of that action is... Consequentalist Ethics (consequence-action that will achieve best possible results)
From the health care perspective the desirable consequence (outcome) for human beings is: happiness, pleasure, absence of pain, well being and flourishing
The ethical action is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm, OR produces the greatest balance of good over harm Utilitarian ethics
In utilitarian ethics, the life of an individual might be considered ___ valuable if the consequence is that ___ lives could be saved less valuable if more lives could be saved
Ethical actions should be consistent w/ certain ideal virtues that contribute to the full development of our humanity. Virtue Ethics
These virtues are dispositions and habits that allow us to act according to the highest potential of our character and on behalf of values like truth and beauty Virtue ethics
Examples of virtues Honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, tolerance, love, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control and prudence
Asks "What kind of person will I become if i do this?" or "Is this action consistent with my acting at my best?" Virtue ethics
What is the main focus in virtue ethics? On the goodness of the individual (their character)
What virtues deal with the goodness of the individual? trustworthy, loyal, generous or helpful
Members of pharmacist profession are expected to conduct their _____ ____ in a proper manner but also to behave in their professional lives in a way that doesn't bring discredit to the profession professional practice
Virtuous behavior means that we ___ __ base our actions because we will gain something or bc of fear from punishment DO NOT
Profess a competence to practice Professionals
The active demonstration of the traits of a professional Professionalism
What are some traits of professional? Knowledge of skills/profession, service orientation, leadership conscience and trustworthy, creativity and innovation, pride in profession, relationship w/ client, accountability, ethical
1. Duty Based concepts of what should be the right motivation behind our actions 2. Consequential considerations of maximizing happiness for greatest # of individuals 3. Possessing the qualities of those regarded as virtuous and morally praisworthy Ethical basis for professionalism
The pharmacist owes the patient a "duty of care" usually expressed as the duty to act in the patient's best interest Duty-based morality
Moral basis for ___ ___ ___ in distrinbution of power-professionals are trusted that they would not use (exploit) the imbalance of power w/ their patients duty of care
Duty based morality can be recognized as a reflection of human rights (patients who consult pharmacist or use service their service do that w/ expectation of right to good quality, current information and safe information
Utilitarian argument for professionalism in pharmacy practice will be the optimal use of medicine to manage disease and suffering Goal-based morality
Joining a profession means commitment to the following values: honor, integrity, humanity, confidentiality, compassion, empathy, trust, to use good judgement and exhibit good behavior virtue based morality
Your job is to do a specific task but not necessarily more Responsibility
Your job is to achieve a specific outcome, ensure others do their specific tasks and can be called to account for failure Accountability
Can be called to account on law and possibly pay if failure leads to harm Liability
Our conscience or duty to ourselves (for quality of service we provide) Personal accountability
The capacity for judgement or an ability to decide and follow actions that are truly of one's choice Personal autonomy
The respect for capacity of people to make responsible decisions about health and life Autonomy
The patient's right to ___ ___(eg freedom of choice w/ regard to care) Autonomy in health care
Traditionally, patients who were denied their right to self determination were done so based on value that "physician knows best" Medical paternalism (act in "parent-like" way)
Paternalism can be viewed as ___ autonomy OPPOSITE
What are the two types of paternalism? Weak and Strong
Intervening in a patient's autonomy bc they are unable to make an autonomous decision due to medical condition (eg. coma, alzheimers, mental illness) Weak paternalism
Weak paternalism is ethically ____ while strong paternalism is ethically ____ justifiable; unjustafiable
Overriding a patient's autonomy bc you believe they are making the wrong decision or one that will cause themselves harm (w/draw tx, assisted suicide) Strong paternalism
Managed care limits freedom of choice therefore limiting ____ autonomy
Initially linked w/ those who morally opposed war and claimed right to refuse service Conscientious objection
Some pharmacists with this belief argue that dispensing plan B would violate their autonomy Conscientious objection
T/F Some states allow pharmacists to refuse based on conscientious objection, while some say pharms cannot refuse based on moral/ethical grounds TRUE
Acting in a manner that benefits a patient or doing good for a patient's benefit Beneficence
Conscious effort by health care provider to not hurt or adversely affect the patient or avoiding harming a patient ("do no harm") Non-maleficence
Non-maleficence is act of ___ harm avoiding
When doctor harms patient=____; but their intention was not to harm being ____ and ____ Maleficent; beneficent and non-maleficent
When making ethical decision the pharmacist is in the position to choose b/t doing what he/she thinks is best and respect their autonomy Beneficence vs. autonomy
Our professional integrity is strongly based on the trust of our patients-what we say and do is corrent Veracity (truth)
Pharmacists are expected to be honest and truthful but also ___ about possible threats to truth such as fraud and abuse Proactive
A pharmacist has the __ to tell the truth and act w/ conviction of conscience
Acceptability of a lie based on total consequence Utiliarian ethics
Looks only at consequences for the patient traditional health professional ethics
Loyalty or promise-keeping Fidelity
The pharmacist patient relationship has what obligations? legal contract, ethical contract (covenant-commitment)
T/F Either party can break the patient-provider relationship under following conditions: adequate notice, justifiable reason TRUE
Justice is concerned with how ___ and ___ are distributed goods and harms
How is professional decision making different from any other decision making process? Stakes are higher, consequences from decision can affect care of someone else, sometimes can only solve segment of problem
What is the significance of the decision making process? Practice dealing w/ problem before happens, improves ability to respond rationally, identify values, identify uncertainty and certainty, risk managment, defense retrospect
Decision making is a technigue that allows inclusion of all aspects of a problem including: clinical, legal and ethical
__ is used when making difficult decisions, an experienced pharmacist is not aware decision is made based on previous experience, use of precedent, judgment or common sense systematic structure
What are 3 questions of systematic structure: what is the issue? how do we deal w/ uncertainties? what influences our decision?
Systematic structure is providing an opportunity for reflection as well as... anticipate the problem
To be able to reflect upon reasons behind the decision we take rational reasoning
Decision based on evidence: can we suppress emotional response, consider evidence along w/ values of patient Value-based reasoning
Types of information in pharmacy practice clinical,legal,ethical
A __ stage approach provide structure to decision making process 5 stage
What are 5 stages in 5 stage approach respond to sense or feeling something is wrong, gather info/make assessment, identify ethical problem, seek a resolution (options), determine course of action (choose option)
Heightened emotional sensitivity along with stress and tension or ineffective communication can be a warning sign that one is involved in an ____ ____ ethical problem
Good ethics begin with ___ ___ (classify into clinical and situational) good facts
Medical status, medical hx, diagnosis, prognosis, drugs involved, side effects, life expectancy clinical information
Data regarding values and their perspectives of principles involved; their authority, verbal/nonverbal communication, language, cultural/religious, relationship of people involved Situational information
Indentification and understanding of the value judgments is ___ ___ from situational data MOST IMPORTANT
When is randomization between 2 or more therapies? When we don't know which is better
Benefits the patient but most importantly, produces benefits and welfare for the society (knowledge) RCT (randomized controlled trials)
T/F Hippocratic oath states commitment to welfare of the individual TRUe
The medical community could return to ____ ___ that every intervention had to be for benefit of patient or modify hippocratic tradition and provide exception in case of medical research Hippocratic notion
In medical research: development of ethics that permits the use of human beings... under certain conditions
Who runs ethical codes and standards? Hippocratic oath, APhA code of ethics, Nuremberg code, WMO declaration of helsinki, belmont report, DHHS and FDA regulations
What are the 3 major issues in bioethics of research involving human subjects: informed consent, privacy and confidentiality, equity in research
T/F voluntary consent is NOT "absolutely essential" FALSE -"Absolutely essential
WMA developed ___ ___ in 1964, different from nuremberg code which recognizes that in some cases it is necessary to do research on infants, children, critically ill Helsinki Declaration (surrogate or guardian consent)
Drug testing in children factors: ability of children to consent, role of parents and guardian, needs
Children are NOT... little adults
Pediatric studies should be conducted in subjects.. who may benefit from participation in the trial
T/F children who can give assent should be enrolled in a study before those who cannot TRUE
____ studies may be acceptable if there are no approved or adequately studied therapies for children w/ condition under study Placebo controlled studies
The requirement that medical professionals maintain confidentiality Principle of fidelity or promise-keeping
Breaking confidence when the physician believes that the patient will benefit Hippocratic ethics
Breaking confidence when there... is a serious threat or bodily harm to others (AMA no APhA code)
What are the critical issues in research involving human subjects medical info from patient chart could useful, researcher share w/ another researcher, patient not identifiable, nonetheless, his/her personal info published
What are the 2 major areas in which the question of justice can arise in research involving human subjects subject selection, design and conduct of research
Resolving conflict b/t our research goal and loyalty to our patients (Providing incentive) conflicts of interest
Woman's cancer cells taken while she was under in surgery, she never gave consent, continually used today HeLa cells (henrietta)
The principle of justice was first mentioned Belmont report
Created by: csucop2014