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Sandra's Biology 102

Sea snakes, which are reptiles, have developed a similar body form to eels, which are fish. They do not share a common ancestor with this same body form. Sea snakes and eels therefore share ______ body form homoplastic (analogous)
Taxonomy is the science of? naming, describing and classifying organisms
Which classification level would contain the greatest number of species? Domain
An example of homologous structures is the wing of a bad and? the arm of a human
All animals must take in nutrients from their environment and digest their food internally. The nutritional mode of animals is called? heterotrophic
Dr. Richard has discovered a new species and classified it as an animal. Which set of characteristics most likely describes this organism? presence of sense organs, dominant diploid stage, differentiated cells
Malaria is caused by an ____ which is carried to a host by a ___ apicomplexan; mosquito
Your abdominal cavity, which contains most of your major organs is a coelom lined with mesoderm
Aurelia aurita is a cnidarian. Which of the following pairs of characteristics would most likely describe this organism? gastrovascular cavity and diploblastic
Determinate cleavage takes place in ___ and is characterized by a pattern of development where the ultimate fate of each cell is ___ protostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
You have discovered a new organism and based on DNA sequencing, have determined that it is radiolarian. Which of the following statements does NOT describe this organism? a. constituent of plankton b. it lacks a shell (Correct) c. it has axopods d. it is an actinpod e. it is a rhizarian
Most animals show what kind of symmetry? bilateral
The __ gives rise to the outer covering and nervous system of an animal while the __ gives rise to the muscles and skeleton ectoderm; mesoderm
Which characteristics is shared by all cnidarians and ctenophores? aquatic habitat
During its embryonic development, the blastopore of Paragonimus westermani develops into the mouth. Which other characteristic must also describe this species? it is triploblastic
What characteristic is not shared by all chordates at some point in their life cycle? vertebrae
The function of ___is to repair damage in the CNS while the function of the ___ is to help endothelial cells form the blood brain barrer microglia; astrocytes
Afferent neurons? transmit information to the CNS
Dr. Guirguis is measuring the membrane potential of a typical neuron and has observed that it has changed from -70 mV to -80 mV. This changed represents? hyperpolarization
The function of the myelin sheath in axons of the CNS and PNS neuron is insulation
The toxin involved in botulism is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.It inhibits the release of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. The action of this toxin on the neuron will most likely result in what? no nerve impulse transmitted to the postsynaptic neuron
Dr.G is teaching her class about the all-or-nothing property of action potentials. What should she include to explain the specific concept? Threshold is -55 mV and spike occurs at +35 mV
The sensory nerves of the somatic portion of the PNS system does what? transmits information from sense organs to the CNS
The nervous system of flatworms, a ___ is located at the anterior of the organism while __connect the longitudinal nerve cords cerebral ganglion; transverse nerves
What animal has the most advanced cephalization? a chordate
If the hindbrain does not develop normally during embryonic development, which structure of the brain will be affected? medulla
What is the sensory pathway in a reflex arc? sensory neuron, spinal cord, interneuron, motor neuron, muscle
Information is carried from your eyes to your brain by what? afferent neurons
The retina contains 2 types of photoreceptors in all locations except the fovea where ___ are located and the optic disc where __ are loacted? only cones; neither rods nor cones
What is incorrect concerning a nerve net? shows evolution of cephalization
after working several hours in a flower show, you do not detect the smell of roses. Why? sensory adaptation
What receptors are involved with pacinian corpuscles that causes displacement of layers which stimulate an action potential? exteroreceptor and mechanoreceptor
Cones and Rods? cones respond to specific wavelengths and colors, rods respond to all
What is the correct order of structures in the eye through which incoming light passes before the impulse travels to the brain cornea, aqueous humor, lens, viterous humor, rods/cones, optic nerve
What glands are part of the endocrine system? Adrenal, hypothalmus, parathyroid, and pancreas
Why doesn't every cell in the body respond to every hormone circulating the bloodstream? each cell has specific surface receptors, which interact only with hormones they recognize
Target tissues for steroid hormones and thyroid hormones do not have receptors in the plasma membrane for these hormones because? they can easily cross the phospholipid bilayer
Removing which gland would have the most wide-reaching effect on the functions of a human body? pituitary gland
When growth hormone is hypersecreted in adulthood the individual affected develops enlarged hands, face, and feet. Which is characteristic of what? acromegaly
After a steroid hormone binds its receptor, the hormone receptor complex then does what? binds with DNA
The anterior pituitary secretes more ACTH, leading to more glucocorticosteroids in plasma, which causes the anterior pituitary then to secrete less ACTH. This is an example of what type of hormone control? negative feedback
Fludrocortisone is a synthetic hormone which is in the same chemical group as cortisol and whose target tissue is the kidney. What would also describe fludrocortisone? after it binds to a receptor, the resulting complex binds to specific sites on the kidney cell's DNA
The pituitary gland is regulated most directly by what? hypothalmus
In which type of regulation does the hormone act on the cells it produces? autocrine signaling
Beta-cells produce what in the pancreas? insulin
The mitochondria in the sperm provide? energy for the movement of flagellum
which structures produce substances that contribute to semen? bulbourethral glands and seminal vesicles
One secondary spermatocyte ultimately produces how many mature sperm? 2
Roger has been diagnosed with a disorder which his immune system targets and destroys his sperm. Which of the following causes this abnormality? breakdown of the tight junctions between Sertoli cells
Arrange stages of oogenisis in order oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, ovum
Arrange path of sperm to ejaculation seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra
Degeneration of the corpus luteum is prevented by? LH and hCG
In a developing follicle, the __ is/are a layer of connective tissue surround the granulosa cells and the __ is/are a thing layer of glycoproteins theca cells, zona pellucida
What hormone induces labor? oxytocin
Path of sperm to fertilize egg Vagina, cervix, uterus, ovdict (fallopian tubes)
The purpose of the cortical reaction in sea urchin development is to prevent polyspermy
What characteristic describes fertilization in both sea urchins and humans? sperm must first undergo acrosome reaction
Implantation of a fertilized ovum occurs when? it is in the blastocyte stage
During early cleavage the size of individual cells ___, while the overall size of the embryo__ decreases, remains the same
Dr.G synthesized a drug which blocks the release of calcium ions from the endoplatic reticulum in the sea urchin egg. What effect will this drug have on fertilization? the cortical granules will not fuse with the plasma membrane
What is common to both avian and mammalian development? epiblast and hypoblast
Sequence of events involved in fertilization 1. sperm meets egg and recognition occurs 2. regulation of sperm entry to the egg 3. the egg becomes activated 4. sperm and egg nuclei fuse
The archenteron is lined with? endoderm
Induction is important during which stage of development? organogenesis
During human embryo development, blood cells will from from the __, while the __ will be incorporated into umbilical cord yolk sac; allantois
If development in Henson's node is inhibited, which structure will be affected? notochord
What is the sequence in mammalian egg covering beginning from outside and moving inward granulosa cells, zona pellucida, plasma membrane
A motor unit is a group of muscle fibers activated by one neuron
At different times during contraction or at rest, a myosin head binds to ATP or actin
What organisms are characterized by a hydrostatic skeleton? nematod and annelid
The role of calcium in muscle contraction is to? bind to troponin and change its shape so that the myosin binding sites on the actin filament are exposed
Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced by the body and which reduces bone re absorption. What is the mode of action of calcitonin? inhibits osteoclast activity
Calcium binds to __ in skeletal muscle and leads to exposure of the binding site for ___ on the __ filament. troponin; myosin; actin
What structure is the most inclusive when describing a muscle? fascicle
Salivary amylases in the mouth convert? starch to smaller polysaccharides
Order of tissue layers from outside of digestive system toward lumen visceral peritoneum, muscle layer, submucosa, mucosa
The parietal cells (glands) secrete intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid
How are mastication and bile salts involved in digestion? both contribute to mechanical breakdown of food
Which enzymes are involved in protein digestion? pepsin and chymotrypsin
Paul has been sick with a lung infection and taking antibiotics for the past 2 weeks. His doctor told him that this will affect his digestive system and told him to do what? take vitamin B12 and vitamin K supplements
Intrinsic Factor is required fro the absorbency of Vitamin B12
An increase in the levels of gastrin in the blood would indicate what? the rugae have been stretched
Dr. G developed a drug potentially useful to treat obesity. The drug's active ingredient decreases fat absorption by degrading enzymes that digest fat. Which enzyme would this drug target? pacreatic lipase
Certain amino acids are called essential amino acids because? are essential as energy sources
Which two minerals are both important component of healthy teeth and bones in humans? iron and calcium
If you were to jog a mile a few hours after lunch, which stored fuel would you probably tap into in order to provide energy for your run? muscle and liver glycogen
Joan is on a diet which is undernourished. How can you describes her diet? it provides less calories than normally recommended
What does fiber do? 1. helps decrease cholesterol concentration in blood 2. reduces risk of heart disease 3. increases levels of high density lipoproteins in the blood 4. helps material move through colon
Dr. G's research team has been asked to investigate a new extract that this nutrition company hopes will contain phytochemicals. Dr G is looking for this extract to contain compounds that? are antioxidants and protect against cancer and heart disease
If blood-oxygen levels are low, the ___ will release erythropoetin to stimulate production of RBC kidney
What organisms have a heart with 4 chambers? humans and birds
Cross section through and artery and vein running parallel in your leg. How would you describe only the artery? has more muscle tissue in the wall
Which verebrate has a single blood flow going directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without returning to heart? fishes
An animal has a cardiac output of 4000 mL/min and a stroke volume of 80 mL. What is heart rate? 50 beats per minute
If lymph vessels become blocked with fat and scar tissues, what effect does it have on human? accumulation of interstitial fluid will lead to edema
The molecule responsible for oxygen transport? hemoglobin
What is required for blood clot to occur? fact VIII and prothrombin
Plasma proteins serve as what? 1. carriers for other molecules transported by blood 2. antibodies 3. buffers 4. regulators of osmotic pressure
Describe human RBC no nuclei, produced in bone marrow; cellular
What are some nonspecific defense mechanisms ? 1. lysozyme secreted in tears 2. inflammation 3.mucus in respiratory tract 4. skin
Splinter in finger, didnt remove it, finger is swollen, What happened? histamine caused capillaries in finger to become more permeable
An epitope is a component of which of what? antigen
Which results in long term immunity? chicken pox vaccine
Characteristics of macrophages and dentritic cells act as antigen-presenting cells
Cytotoxic T cells bind to infected cells and release ___ and ___ which cause death of the cell perforins; granzymes
What characteristics must describe a synthesized antibody if it is to be as similar as possible to a natural antibody? it has a very specific 3D conformation
Which cell type is main target for HIV infection? Helper T cells
Functional unites of human lungs where gas exchange occurs? alveoli
Tracheal systems for gas exchange are found in? insects
Each molecule of hemoglobin bind to how many molecules of oxygen? 4
What is correct pathway of air from environment into body? nostrils, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
When there is a decrease in pH of blood, this means that ____ concentrations have increases and as a result the breathing rate should ___ carbon dioxide; increase
Organism that is 3 mm long and 0.2 mm thick. What describes this organism? no circulatory system
What is Cell differentiation? when cells mature to posses a distinct form and function
Morphogenesis involves? 1. cell division 2. cell growth 3. cell determination 4. cell differentiation
What is cleavage? series of rapid cell divisions cell number increases by mitosis zygote splits into many blastomeres
What is blastulation? formation of blastocoele
What is gastrulation? formation of 3 germ layers
What are the 3 germ layers? What do they make up? Ectoderm (skin) mesoderm (muscle, kidney, bone, gonads etc) endoderm (digestive, lungs)
Are stem cells differentiated cells or undifferentiated? undifferentiated
Where is the Henson's node located? at the end of the primitive streak
ectoderm forms? skin, sense organs, nervous system
mesoderm forms? digestive tract, liver, lungs, pancreas
endoderm forms? circulatory system, reproductive system, skeletal system
What is function of trophoblastic cells? develops amnion and chorion
What signals corpus leutum that pregnancy has begun? hCG
Created by: sguirguis17