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Gillam ch 10-17,28

gillambiology ch 10-17,28 review randomized list

EXOSKELETON Arthropods have an -?- made of chitin.
OXYGEN There was no -?- in the early Earth's atmosphere.
CHROMOSOMES Humans have 46 -?-
OPEN Arthropods have an -?- circulatory system.
RADIATION Chemicals, viruses, and -?- can all cause mutation.
BOOK LUNGS Scorpions use -?- for respiration.
GENERATIONS It takes many -?- for evolution to occur.
EMBRYOS The similarities in -?- of different species can be explained by the theory of evolution.
TRAITS Many of your -?- caused by your genes can not bee seen.
SEGMENTED Arthropods have a -?- body.
HEREDITY Genetic scientists study -?-, and try to understand how traits get passed on to offspring.
LIVE A person can -?- without a Y chromosome, but not without an X chromosome.
INSERTIONS Substitutions, deletions, and -?- are all examples of point mutations.
STOP Natural selection will -?- evolution when the species is perfect.
THEORY It is a -?- that evolution has created all the different species that exist on Earth today.
JOINTED All arthropods have -?- appendages.
PAIRS Humans have 23 -?- of chromosomes in each cell.
SEGREGATION During -?- a "coin" is flipped to see which allele a person is carrying will be give to the gamete they are producing.
MENDEL Who was the "father" of genetics?
CELLS According to figure 10-1 all snails have the same size -?-
INTERPHASE According to figure 10-4 the cell cycle can be divided up into two main segments: cell division and -?-
HIMALAYAN According to figure 11-12, what color coat is recessive to all other colors accept albino?
POLYPEPTIDE According to figure 12-18 , what is another name for a protein, or chain of amino acids.
BEAGLE Darwin took a 3-year voyage on a ship named -?-.
PHENOTYPE The colors in a pedigree chart represent the -?- of the individuals.
SEXUAL Most variation in a population is the result of -?- reproduction.
ABSOLUTE Carbon-14 dating is a method of finding the -?- age of fossils less than 60,000 years old.
GRADUALISM Darwin believed in a slow and steady evolution know today as -?-
BLUEPRINT RNA is like a -?- of the parts of the master plan.
SCORPION A -?- is a carnivorous arachnid with pincers and a poison barb at the end of its abdomen.
BOOK LUNG Spiders use a -?- for respiration.
FRAME A deletion of a base in DNA results in a -?- shift mutation that will affect many amino acids.
FALSE In Griffith's experiments a mixture of nice and killer bacteria would probably not harm the mice. truth or false
VIRUS A bacteriophage is a -?-
CHROMOSOME A -?- is a highly coiled DNA molecule visible only during cell division.
BARR BODY Cells in a girl often have a -?- because the cell deactivates one of the X chromosomes and pushes it to the side.
CHROMATID Each half of a chromosome is called a -?-
POLYPLOIDY A condition where a plant has an entire extra set of chromosomes.
CENTIPEDE A -?- is a carnivorous arthropod with 2 legs per segment.
POPULATION A -?- is a group of the same species that interbreed.
CORE The -?- of a virus is made of DNA
CEPHALOTHORAX What part of a crayfish is covered by the carapace.
MILLIPEDE A -?- is a detritivore, with 4 legs per segment.
RESTRICTION -?- enzymes are able to cut DNA at specific base sequences.
MALARIA The good thing about having half your blood cells sickle shaped is that you are less likely to get -?-
SPECIATION -?- occurs during adaptive radiation.
POINT A mutation that affects just one base is called a -?- mutation.
RECOMBINATION Crossing over is also know as -?-, the frequency of which can be measured as an indication of how close genes are on a chromosome.
SPIRACLES The air exits an insect's tracheal tubes through holes called -?-.
THORAX The legs of an insect are attached to the -?-
LARGE INTESTINE If we ANALYZE DATA we find that the cells of the -?- take about 6 days to complete a life cycle.
SPECIALIZATION It is -?- and division of labor that allows insect societies to do so much.
FOSSILS Darwin collected -?- and samples of the living species during his voyage.
ZERO Spiders have -?- antenna.
CODOMINANT Since people who are heterozygous for the sickle cell anemia gene have both round and crescent shaped cells, the normal and the sickle cell gene must be -?-
RECESSIVE Lethal genetic disorders are usually -?-, otherwise they would never get passed on to the next generation.
ADENINE Guanine and -?- are both purines.
WALLACE It was an article by -?- which contained many ideas identical to Darwin's, that finally forced Darwin to publish "On the Origin of Species".
PROTEINS Bad DNA creates bad -?- that create bad traits.
TICK A -?- is basically a parasitic arachnid.
NATURAL -?- selection can be stabilizing, disruptive, or directional.
CUAAUGU What would GATTACA be transcribed into?
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION Humans have been able to mold species to our liking through hundred of years of -?-
CENOZOIC The -?- era began about 65 million years ago.
RELATED DNA is now being used to prove that species are -?-
DNA One reason really big cells cannot exist is that the -?- can only control so much.
SURFACE One reason really big cells cannot exist is that as the cell gets the bigger the -?- to volume ratio goes down.
EIGHT How many different blood types are there?
THREE Insects have -?- body segments.
TWO Spiders have -?- body sections.
TODAY Lyell wrote a book about geology where he suggested that the past must be explained by what we see happening -?-
THOUSAND Prior to the books by Lyell and Hutton, everyone assumed the Earth was just a few -?- years old.
CLONE An identical twin born to a different mother at a different time would be a -?-
VENTRAL Bugs have a brain connected to a -?- nerve cord.
ILLEGAL It is possible but -?- to clone humans today.
POLYGENIC I.Q. is determined by the interaction of many genes working together, in other words I.Q. is a -?- trait.
POLYGENIC -?- traits cannot by crossed using a Punnett square.
INTRONS What do we call the parts of the DNA that don't say anything?
EXONS What do we call the parts of the DNA that actually code for proteins?
MUTATION What do we call a change in the base sequence in the DNA?
GENE What do we call a section of DNA that codes for a protein?
DIRECTIONAL -?- selection will cause the average of a polygenic trait to shift either higher or lower.
DISASTERS Natural -?- can cause evolution, even in the absence of natural selection.
INBREEDING Although -?- can cause problem, it does maintain the desired characteristics in the offspring.
GENETICDRIFT -?- is evolution caused by accident rather than natural selection.
IDENTICAL Mitosis produces new cells that are genetically -?- to each other and the cell they came from.
DIFFERENTIATION The specialization of cells into different tissues is know as -?-
DIFFERENT Meiosis produces new cells that are genetically -?- from each other and the cell they came from.
ADAPTED Darwin said species changed as they -?- to their environments.
SPINY The echinoderms are characterized by their -?- skin.
SQUARE In a pedigree chart a male is represented by a -?-
PAIRS Humans have 23 chromosome -?-
LETHAL Having an extra chromosome is usually a -?- condition.
TRANSGENIC Most of the cloned organism have been rare -?- organism made with recombinant DNA technology.
MATES Most non-social insects communicate in order to find -?-
CYTOSINE What is the complimentary base that goes with guanine in a DNA molecule?
POOL The gene -?- consists of all the alleles in a population.
ENVIRONMENTS Species on different continents look similar because they have been evolving in similar -?-.
NERVES Knowing how to control the cell cycle could lead to a cure to cancer and treatments to repair damaged -?-
CHROMOSOME DNA that is copied and bundled is called a -?-
PLATE In plants cells cytokinesis is performed by the construction of a cell -?- across the middle of the cell.
OVER PRODUCTION Malthus helped Darwin realize that all species have the capacity for -?-.
EVOLUTION Today -?- is defined as a change in the frequency of the alleles in a population.
PALEOZOIC The -?- era did not follow a mass extinction.
EMBRYO The only real difference between a clone and any other individual is the way the -?- was made.
HOMOLOGOUS -?- structures look different but evolved from the same organs.
FERTILIZATION During -?- the DNA of two cells is joined into one.
GEOGRAPHICAL If one species does not mate with another species because a river separates them, then that is a -?- isolation technique.
VARIATION Artificial selection works due to the natural -?- that exists in all species.
POLLINATION Many foods we eat depend on -?- by insects.
SIMILARITIES Much of the evidence for evolution comes from the fact that the many -?- among the different species suggest a common ancestry.
FOSSIL The most compelling evidence that evolution has occurred is the -?- record.
TIME Darwin used the evidence provided by Hutton and Lyell to show that there was lots of -?- for evolution to occur.
ANCESTORS The theory of evolution includes the idea that fossils represent the -?- of species alive today.
ALL Darwin's theory of evolution attributed -?- life on earth to a common ancestor.
ACQUIRED Lamarck believed that evolution was the result of -?- traits being passed on.
OPERATOR In bacteria gene expression can be controlled when repressor proteins knot the DNA by attaching to the -?- site on the DNA strand.
COMPOUND Insects have -?- eyes.
DOMINANCE Mendel believed the F1 generations of hybrids were all the same was due to the -?- of certain traits.
CAN It is a fact that evolution -?- occur.
ASEXUAL -?- reproduction is fast, but produces no variation.
POLAR BODIES Meiosis in females results in one egg and 3 -?-
MAMMALS There were a few small -?- alive during the Mesozoic era.
PRECAMBRIAN -?- was the first and longest period of time in the geologic time scale.
PROPHASE What is the first step of mitosis?
AUG What codon codes for methionine?
GILLS Crustaceans use -?- for respiration.
ACHONDROPLASIA The fancy name for the disorder caused by a dominant gene which results in little people.
TETRADS During meiosis -?- form as 2 homologous chromosomes (4 chromatids) line up together in the middle of the cell.
RELATIVE -?- dating of fossils tells us which came first and which came last, but not how old they are.
SEDIMENTARY Most fossils are found in -?- rocks.
TRILOBITES Arthropods have evolved from -?-.
AVERY Who discovered that gene were made of DNA in 1944?
ELECTRICITY In order to get an egg to accept the replacement DNA scientist use -?- to encourage the cell to fuse and begin mitosis.
PNEUMONIA What disease did Griffith inject into mice?
MESOZOIC The -?- era had a mass extinctions before and after it.
RECOMBINANT -?- DNA technology has allowed us to create glowing mice.
URACIL Unlike DNA, RNA has a -?- base.
ABPOSITIVE What blood type has the most protein antigens in it?
FOUR The crustaceans usually have -?- antennae.
OPERONS Humans do not have -?-, so our cells can access each gene individually.
READ After completing the HGP people were heard to say, now that we have the book we need to how to -?- it.
TWENTY THREE A normal human egg has -?- chromosomes.
EARTH Darwin figured that if the -?- could change as Hutton and Lyell suggested, them maybe life could change.
REPRODUCTIVE Meiosis occurs only in the -?- organs of a birds body.
UNZIP The first step in replication of DNA is to -?- the DNA molecule.
GENES Differentiation is accomplished in humans by the control of the expression of -?-
POPULATIONS -?- evolve, not individuals.
MOLTING During -?- an insects sheds its old exoskeleton.
ZERO If big toes is dominant, and little toes is recessive, what is the probability of getting a little toed kid when a homozygous big toed person is crossed with a homozygous little toed person?
DNA FINGERPRINT A -?- is produced by analyzing the junk DNA between the genes.
SINGLE Unlike DNA, RNA is a -?- strand.
EQUILIBRIUM If a population is not evolving then it must be in a state of genetic -?-
WEATHER The different Galapagos islands had a variety of -?- patterns.
ENVIRONMENT During natural selection it is the -?- that determines which organisms will survive.
MILLIONS Hutton said that it took -?- of years for the Earth's features to form.
MAN During artificial selection, it is -?- that decides who will live and die.
MUTATIONS Though out history it has been the introduction of random -?- that has provided the source of useful and novel characteristics along with genetic disorders.
TELOPHASE What is the last step of mitosis?
FITTEST Natural selection only lets the -?- survive.
PAGE A gene is like a -?- in the master plan.
BOOK A chromosome is like a -?- in the master plan.
CODOMINANT If a bear looks gray because it has white hairs and black hairs then the black and white genes must be -?-
DINOSAURS There were a lot of -?- during the Mesozoic era.
FISH There were a lot of -?- during the Paleozoic era.
THREE How many bases make a codon?
STABILIZING -?- selection will make the bell shaped curve of phenotypes taller with steeper sides.
SPECIES Darwin wondered so many different -?- existed.
PUNCTUATED The fossil record matches better with a -?- equilibrium pattern of evolution.
ORGAN Someday soon we may have transgenic pigs that can act as -?- donors for humans.
NONE What animals did Mendel do genetic experiments on?
NUCLEOTIDES What are the monomers used to make DNA?
REPRODUCE By definition, the most fit organisms are the ones that -?- most.
NONDISJUNCTION Down syndrome is most often the result of -?- that occurs during the formation of an egg cell.
MANDIBLES Crustaceans usually have mouth parts called -?-.
RIBOSOME Where is the mRNA translated?
SUBSTITUTION What type of mutation will only affect one amino acid in the resultant protein?
COLEOPTERA What is the name of the insect order with the most species?
DEOXYRIBOSE What is the name of the sugar in DNA?
RIBOSE What is the name of the sugar in RNA?
HYBRIDIZATION -?- can produce new types of plants with traits that represent the best of both worlds.
MITOSIS What process creates new skin cells to replace old ones?
CYCLINS What are the newly discovered chemicals called that have a controlling influence over the cell cycle?
CONTACT -?- inhibition cause normal cells to stop growing when they become crowded by neighboring cells.
NUCLEUS Prokaryotic cells do not have a -?- to hold their single strand of DNA
DISRUPTIVE -?- selection will not change the average of a polygenic trait, but it will reduce the number of individuals that have the average.
REFLEXES Since Echinoderms do not have a brain it is assumed that there responses to stimuli are guided by -?-
CHROMATIN DNA that is not bundled up is called -?-
RRNA What type of nucleic acid is a ribosome made of?
TRNA What type of nucleic acid brings amino acids to the ribosomes?
RANDOM Since all naturally occurring mutations are -?-, it is very rare for it to be beneficial.
GENE The modern definition of a -?-, is a section of DNA that controls a particular trait.
GEOGRAPHIC The -?- distribution of species can be explained by the fact that species on different continents descended from different ancestors.
THOUSANDS Humans have -?- of genes.
THOUSANDS There are -?- of genes on your DNA.
MALE The anterior pair of swimmerets are enlarged in the -?- crayfish.
CROSSING OVER The process of -?- allow for novel combinations of genes to be created from a limited pool of chromosomes.
LAY EGGS The job of a queen insect is to -?-
GATTACA If one side of a DNA molecule had CTAATGT on it, what would the other side have on it?
LARVA The immature form of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis is called a -?-
BILLIONS Humans have -?- of bases in their DNA.
KIDNEYS The malpighian tubules of insects have the same function as human -?-
ANAPHASE During which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids get pulled apart?
METAPHASE During which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell?
FREQUENCY The relative -?- of an allele gives its percentage of the gene pool for that trait.
INTRON Usually a mutation of an -?- will not harm a person.
BEHAVIORAL If one type of ant won't mate with another species of ant because it does not smell right, then those two species are using a -?- isolation technique.
ALLELES The various forms of a gene are called -?-
CYTOKINESIS The final part of the cell cycle when the cell becomes two cells is called -?-
BACTERIA The first forms of life on Earth were -?-
NYMPH The immature form of an insect that undergoes incomplete metamorphosis is called a -?-
COMPETE Overproduction causes the offspring to -?- for the limited resources.
BOYS A recessive gene on the X chromosome will be expressed most often in -?-
GIRLS A dominant gene on the X chromosome will be expressed most often in -?-
TRANSFERRNA The anticodons are on the -?-.
CEPHALIZATION What is the one thing that all Echinoderms lack?
MEIOSIS What process turns one normal diploid body cell into 4 haploid sex cells.
GREEN GLANDS What crayfish organ lies in the head near the brain?
CELLS How naturally created organic chemicals could have formed into living -?- is still a mystery to science.
CYSTIC FIBROSIS Approximately 1 out of 30 people is a carrier for the gene that causes -?-
PROTEIN What is the outside of a virus made of?
HYBRIDS If the male P-generation and the female P-generations were different, then the offspring would be -?-
ARTIFICIAL Darwin noticed that people have been changing species for hundreds of years using -?- selection.
SEVEN The time-line on pg 292 is misleading because 1960 to 1977 (17 years) is 3 cm , but 1951 to 1953 (2 years) is about -?- cm.
TEMPORAL -?- isolation keeps plants that bloom in the spring from mating with plants that bloom in the fall.
RNA What solves the problem of having the instructions for proteins being in one spot, and the construction site in another.
HGP What government sponsored project was completed in the year 2000. (acronym)
HISTONES What are the protein molecules called that help DNA bundle in Eukaryotic cells?
INCOMPLETE The fossil record provides an -?- history of life on Earth.
TRUTH The bacteria became radioactive after the virus with tracers on its DNA infected it. truth or false
TRACERS What are the radioactive atoms called that scientists can detect with instruments.
CHROMOSOMES True independent assortment rarely happens because the genes for traits are bundle together on -?-
DNA POLYMERASE What enzyme reads/copies the DNA molecule during replication.
DNA Lamarck did not realize that the only thing a parent passes on to its offspring is -?-
PKU What is a recessive autosomal disease that all babies are checked for immediately after birth?
FAR APART If the recombination frequency is high then the genes must be -?- on the chromosome.
CLOSE TOGETHER If the recombination frequency is low (don't recombine much) then the genes must be -?- on the chromosome.
SALT A "spiky" looking red blood cell was probably placed in -?- water. salt or pure
EXTERNAL Echinoderms use -?- reproduction, and the parents never meet each other.
ENDOSYMBIOTIC The -?- theory says that the organelles of the first eukaryotic cells were actually bacteria living symbiotically within other bacteria.
BASES In translation a sequence of -?- becomes a sequence of amino acids.
RNABASES Transcription changes a sequence of DNA bases into a sequence of -?-.
CONVERGENT Different species in similar environments will likely undergo -?- evolution.
PHOSPHATE What molecular group sits between the sugars in a DNA molecule?
MUTATIONS -?- are a source of variation in an asexually reproducing population.
REPRODUCTIVELY In order for speciation to occur, a population must be split into two -?- isolated groups.
ANCESTOR Proving that different species have a common -?- proves evolution.
FANGS The chelicerae of spiders are basically -?-
EMBRYOS Where do human stems cells come from? TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY
MRNA What nucleic acid tells the ribosome which amino acid comes next?
METEORITE The evidence suggest that it was a -?- that caused the mass extinctions.
PALEONTOLOGISTS -?- are scientists that collect and study fossils.
SPREAD DISEASE The insects that cause the most harm to humans are the ones that -?-
FLEX Bugs have muscles that extend and -?- joints.
SMOOTH In Griffith's experiments the colonies of killer bacteria looked -?-
CHARGAFF Who discovered that the amount of C and G are always the same in samples of DNA?
UNBRANCHED The appendages of the uniramians are -?-.
PERIODS The Eras of the Geologic time scale are divided up into -?-
GRAY What color would the feathers be of a heterozygous bird be if they carry a black gene that has incomplete dominance over the white gene it carries?
VESTIGIAL Evolution can explain the presence of -?- organs such as the human appendix and wisdom teeth.
ENVIRONMENTAL Many traits are the results of an interaction between genetic factors and -?- factors.
GALAPAGOS Darwin noticed that the climate of the different -?- islands varied along with the species that lived on them.
CENTROMERE The thing in the middle of a chromosome that holds the chromatids together is called a -?-
DNA What was transforming the nice bacteria into killer in Griffith's experiments?
NICE In Griffith's experiments the bacteria that formed into rough colonies were the -?- bacteria.
BELL The graph of the phenotypes of a polygenic trait will usually be a -?- shaped curve.
LAVA A one point the entire Earth was one big ball of -?-
ANALOGOUS -?- structures look the same but evolved from different organs.
SPERM The gender of the offspring is determined by which sex chromosome the -?- was carrying.
AGE OF THE WIFE The odds of having a Down syndrome child goes up as the -?- of a man goes up.
GELELECTROPHORESIS -?- is used to make DNA fingerprints and to separate DNA pieces based on their sizes.
RANDOM If evolution is to be stopped then the matings must be -?-
SMALL It is impossible to stop a very -?- population from evolving.
MARKERS It is important to place -?- on the DNA of transformed organism so that we can tell them apart from the natural species.
THERAPY Gene -?- attempts to cure genetic disorders by inserting good DNA into cells of the patient.
ONE HUNDRED If big toes is dominant, and little toes is recessive, what is the probability of getting a heterozygous kid when a homozygous big toed person is crossed with a homozygous little toed person?
RNA POLYMERASE What enzyme transcribes DNA into RNA.
GENETIC DNA stores and transmits -?- information.
INDIVIDUALS There are always twice as many alleles as there are -?- in the population.
ALLELES All organisms have two -?- for any given gene.
AUTOSOMES A karyotype shows two sex chromosomes and 44 -?-
HOMOZYGOUS A genotype with two identical alleles is said to be -?-
HETEROZYGOUS A genotype with two different alleles (such as in most hybrids) is said to be -?-
O NEGATIVE What blood type can give to all other types?
TRANSFORMATION Bacteria cells suck up DNA from their surroundings in a process know as -?-
CHEMICALS The Miller and Urey experiments showed how some organic -?- could be made by natural processes.
TUBEFEET Star fish respirate, urinate, and locomate with their -?-.
PEDIGREE CHARTS Today the use of DNA analysis has largely replaced the use of -?- to determine an individuals genotype.
TERRESTRIAL -?- arthropods must use a form of internal fertilization, or else the gametes would dehydrate and die.
MISSING LINKS -?- are used by creationists as proof that the fossil record does not show evolution.
PROBABILITY Punnett squares are used to predict the -?- of genotypes and phenotypes in the offspring of a cross.
WAX Humans get such useful items as silk, -?- and honey from insects.
CARNIVORES Spiders are -?-, using their silk to make webs and catch prey.
RECESSIVE -?- genes will usually not affect the phenotype unless they are present in a double dose in the individual.
SEXLINKED -?- genes are usually on the X chromosome, and cause disorders that are expressed much more often in males.
ANSWER Darwin came up with the theory of evolution as an -?- to the many questions raised by his observations.
GLUTAMINE What amino acid would be coded for by CAG on the RNA molecule?
PROLINE What amino acid would GGG on the DNA eventually result in after transcription and translation?
HISTIDINE What amino acid would GTA on the DNA eventually result in after transcription and translation?
PHENYLALANINE What amino acid would AAA on the DNA eventually result in after transcription and translation?
HUTTON What geologist who wrote a book in 1795 about how geological forces have shaped the Earth?
FRANKLIN Who took the x-ray photos of DNA that helped Watson and Crick figure out the structure of DNA?
KARYOTYPE A picture of your chromosomes during mitosis.
Created by: danagillam