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Last minute Endo

QuestionAnswer
pseudohypoparathyroidism renal unresponsiveness to PTH; AD; hypocalcemia, shortened 4-5th digit, short stature
mutation in Gs-a protein of adenyl cyclase cause of pseudohypoparathyroidism
primary hypoparathyroidism causes surgical removal, digeorge, autoimmune
PTH and Ca levels in primary hypoparathyroidism decreased PTH -> decreased Ca
trousseau sign carpal contraction provoked by inflating blood pressure cuff above systolic blood pressure for more than 3 minutes
where is PTH synthesized? chief cells of the parathyroid gland
hypocalcemia signs prolonged QT, muscle cramping, paresthesia, convulsions
insulin receptor heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits. beta subunit is a tyrosine kinase. When insulin binds, subunit autophosphorylates itself -> activation of downstream signaling cascades.
rapid acting insulin lispro, aspart, regular
use of insulin life threatening HYPERkalemia, stress indduced hyperglycemia, type 1 and 2 DM, gestastional diabetes
MOA of sulfonylureas close K+ channel in beta cell -> depolarization -> trigger insulin release via increased Ca influx
toxicity of glitazones weight gain, edema, hepatotoxicity, CV toxicity
mechanism of glitazone increase insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue; binds to PPAR gama nuclear transcription regulator
acarbose, miglitol inhibit intestinal brush border alpha glucosidases
pramlintide decreases glucagon
exenatide increase insulin, decrease glucagon release; GLP1 analog
exenatide toxicity pancreatitis; N/V
LATERAL neck mass in a patient with webbed neck neck mass is a cystic hygroma
thyroid is derived from endoderm at the foramen cecum, junction between the developing anterior and posterior tongue tyhroid gland development
most common site of ectopic thyroid tissue lingual thyroid - in tongue
diffusely enlarged painless goiter Graves disease
multinodular goiter Plummer disease
enlarged painful goiter, neck pain, fever, after a viral illness, increased ESR subacute thyroiditis
pemberton sign engorgement of the face and neck veins when simultaneously lifting the arms overhead, secondary to superior vein compressing on the thoracic outlet
nodules containing thyroid cancer are hot or cold? cold nodules
Created by: ilovemusic007