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Skin Integrity Needs

Unit II

Ability to survive in the host or outside the body? Virulence
Tetanus, gangrene, Botulism, and C-Diff? Anaerobic
These types of bacteria are resistant to dying and can live without water? Spore-forming bacteria
Ideal temp for most human pathogens? 20-30 C (68-109 F)
A temp or chemical that destroys bacteria? Bacteriacidal
Prefered pH environment for microorganisms? 5-7 pH
Prefered light for microorganisms? Dark
If pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms? Symptomatic
If clinical s/s are not present? Asymptomatic
Are permanent residents of the skin, where they survive and multiply without causing illness? Resident organisms
Attach to the skin when a person has contact with another person or object during normal activities? Transient organisms
Hepatitis A Reservoir? Feces
Hepatitis B Reservoir? Blood and certain body fluids, sexual contact.
Hepatitis C Reservoir? Blood, certain body fluids, sexual contact.
HIV Reservoir? Blood, semen, vaginal secretions via sexual contact.
What type of organism causes malaria? Protozoa (Plasmodium Falciparum)
The organism responsible for meningitis in young adults, is normal flora in the mouth and is transmitted to another person via kissing? Neisseria
The major route of transmission for pathogens identified in the health care setting? Unwashed hands
Most contagious stage of infection? Prodromal Stage
Containing WBC's and bacteria-PUS? Purulent
Immunity-after having a certain disease, usually last a lifetime? Natural immunity
Immunity-following a vaccine, may need booster? Artificial Immunity
Immunity- short duration, transplacentally? Passive Immunity
What is the chain of infection? Infectious agent, Reservoir, Portal of exit, mode of Transmission, Portal of Entry, Host. CYCLE again.
Interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms? Incubation Period
Interval from onset of nonspecific s/s to more specific symptoms? Most contagious stage? Prodromal Stage
Interval when client manifests s/s specific to type of infection? Illness stage
Interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear? Convalescent
A protective reaction that serves to neutralize pathogens and repair body cells? Inflammatory Response
Normal flora, body systems defenses and inflammation? Nonspecific Defenses
Present at the site of infection and serve as the first line of defense from microorganisms? Neutrophils
A process that involves the destruction and absorption of bacteria? Phagocytosis
An increase in the number of circulating WBC'S? Leukocytosis
is another name for health care acquired infection? Nosocomial Infection
A type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure? Iatrogenic Infections
Organism that is present outside of the client? Exogenous organism
Can occur when a part of the clients flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results? Endogenous Infection
An age-related decline in immune system function? Immune Senescence
Normal flora, body system defenses, and inflammation? Nonspecific defenses (primary Defense Mechanisms)
Enables the body to target particular pathogens and pathogen infected cells for destruction? Specific Defenses (Secondary Defense Mechanisms)
Acts to increase serum glucose levels and decrease unnecessary anti-inflammatory response through the release of cortisone? Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Are anti-inflammatory drugs that cause protein breakdown and impair the inflammatory response against bacteria and other pathogens? Adrenal Corticosteroids
What color is a Pseudomonis infection (lungs, nasal)? Green
What color is a staph infection? Yellow
What is normal WBC count? 5-10 thousand
What is the normal ESR rate? Up to 15 in M/ Up to 20 for F
What is normal Iron level? 60-90g/100ml
Increased in parasitic infections? Eosinophils 1%-4%
Increased in acute suppurative (pus forming)? Neutrophils 55%-70%
Increaed in protozoan, rickettsial and TB infections? Monocytes 5%-10%
Normal during infection? Basophils 0.5%-1.5%
The removal of all soil from objects and surfaces? cleaning
Eliminates many or all microorganisms, with the exception of bacterial spores, from inanimate objects? Disinfection
What is the max length for nails? 1/4 inch
Items that enter sterile tissue or that present a high risk for infection? Critical items
Items that come in contact with mucous membranes or non intact skin? Semi-critical items
Items that come in contact with skin but not mucous membranes? Non-Critical items
Sterilizes heat-tolerated surgical instruments and semi-critical client care items? Autoclave (moist heat)
Disinfect heat-sensitive instruments and equipment, such as endoscopes, respiratory therapy equipment? Chemical Sterilants (HRD)
This gas sterilizes most medical materials? Ethylene Oxide (ETO) Gas.
Focus on disease that are transmitted by large molecules (>5 microns) that are expelled into the air 3-6 ft? Droplet Precautions
Focus on disease that are transmitted by smaller droplets (<5 microns) that remain in the air for long periods of time. Negative Pressure Room Airborne Precautions
This form of isolation requires specialized room with positive airflow? 12 air exchanges/hr Neutropenic pts Protective Environment
What is the proper order for removing PPE? GEGM (Gloves, Eyes, Gown, Mask)
Intact skin with non-blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence? Stage I
Are responsible for collagen formation, are the only distinctive cell type within the dermis? Fibroblast.
Partial-thickness skin loss involing epidermis, dermis, or both. (Abrasion, Blister, or shallow crater)? Stage II
Full thickness tissue loss, SC fat may be visible, but bone, tendon or muscle not exposed. Slough may be present but does not observe the depth of tissue loss. Undermining and tunneling? Stage III
Full-thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, or muscle. Slough or eschar may be present, undermining and tunneling? Stage IV
Red moist tissue composed of new blood vessels, the presense of which indicates progression toward healing? Granulation Tissue
Describes wound drainage? Exudate
Surgical incision, wound that is sutured or stapled? Heal by epithelialization? Primary Intention
Wound edges are not approximated, pressure ulvers, surgical wounds that have tissue loss, heal by granulation? Secondary Intention
Wound left open for several days, then wound edges are approximated? Tertiary Intention
This phase begins within minutes and lasts approx. 3 days, collagen appears in this phase as early as the 2nd day? Inflammatory Phase
Phase with apperance of new blood vessels, reconstruction progresses, lasts from 3-24 days, filling granulation tissue, contration of the wound, epithelialization? Proliferative Phase
Provides strength and structural integrity to a wound? Collagen
The final stage of healing, sometimes takes more than a year, scar tissue formation and remodeling? Remodeling Phase
Wounds with more than 100,000 organisms per gram of tissue are considered what? Infected
The partial or total separation of wound layers? Dehiscence
Protrusion of visceral organs through a wound opening? Evisceration
Which body fluids have a high risk for skin breakdown? Gastric drainage and Pancreatic drainage
An abonormal passage between two organs or between an organ and the outside body? Fistula
The most commonly used assessment scale for pressure ulcer risk? Braden Scale
Reduces the negative effects of steriods on wound healing? Vitamin A
Necessary for synthesis of collagen? Vitamin C
Necessary for collagen fiber linking? Copper
Necessary for epithelialization and collagen synthesis? Zinc
The best measure of nutritional status? Prealbumin
Damage to the skin and underlying tissues? Induration
Is superficial with little bleeding and is considered a partial thickness wound? Abrasion
Abnormal healing for primary intention wound? Drainage present more than 3 days after surgery.
Will not damage or kill fibroblasts and healing tissue? Noncytoxic cleaners.
Removal of nonviable, necrotic tissue? Debridment
What are 4 methods of debridment? Mechanical, Autolytic, Chemical, and Sharp
The use of a wet-to-dry saline gauze dressing and/or wound irrigation? Mechanical Debridement
Uses synthetic dressings over a wound to allow the eschar to be self-digested by the action of enzymes that are present in fluids? Autolytic Debridement
The use of a topical enzyme preparation, Dankin's solution, or sterile maggots? Chemical Debridement
Is the removal of devitalized tissue by using a scapel, scissors, or other instruments, quickest method of debridement? Sharp/Surgical Debridement
A serum albumin level that is clinicaly significant of malnutrition? <3.5 mg/100ml
Promotes collagen synthesis, capillary wall integrity, fibroblasts function and immonological function? Vitamin C
These dressings are only for debriding wounds and should never be used on a clean granulating wound? Wet-To-Dry dressings
Provides maintenance of wound moisture while absorbing excess drainage. Provides the most absorption? Calcium Alginate
Has larger pores and is most effective in stimulating granulation tissue and wound contraction? Black Polyurethane (PU) Foam
Soft foam is denser with smaller pores and is used when the growth of granulation tissue needs to be restricted? White polyvinyl alcohol (PNA)
Technique that incorporates breath, movements, and meditation to cleanse, strengthen, and circulate vital life energy and blood? Tai-Chi
A process providing a person with visual or auditory information about autonomic physiological functions of the body? Uses instruments? Biofeeback
Compromises several healing modalities, including herbs, accupuncture, moxibustion, diet, exercise, and meditation? Traditional Chinese Medicine
Represents shade, cold and inhibition? Yin
Represents fire, light and excitement? Yang
Created by: BOjangles1006